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Wikipedia Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared treasure. Help us
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treasure. Help us protect it. Arthur C. Clarke
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Sir Arthur C. Clarke, CBE

Arthur C. Clarke at his home office in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 March
2005
Born 16 December 1917(1917-12-16)
Minehead, Somerset, England, United Kingdom
Died 19 March 2008 (aged 90)
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Pen name Charles Willis,[1]
E.G. O'Brien[1]
Occupation Author, Inventor
Nationality British and
Sri Lankan
Genres Hard science fiction
Popular science
Subjects Science
Notable work(s) Childhood's End
2001: A Space Odyssey
Rendezvous with Rama
The Fountains of Paradise
Spouse(s) Marilyn Mayfield (1953-1964)

Influences[show]
H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Lord Dunsany, Olaf Stapledon

Influenced[show]
Stephen Baxter

Official website
Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS (16 December
1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction author, inventor,
and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written
in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which
also produced the film of the same name; and as a host and commentator
in the British television series Mysterious World.[2][3]

Clarke served in the Royal Air Force as a radar instructor and
technician from 1941-1946, proposed satellite communication systems in
1945[4][5] which won him the Franklin Institute Stuart Ballantine Gold
Medal in 1963. He was the chairman of the British Interplanetary
Society from 1947-1950 and again in 1953.[6] Later, he helped fight
for the preservation of lowland gorillas.[7][8]

Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka in 1956 largely to pursue his interest
in scuba diving,[9] and lived there until his death. He was knighted
by the British monarchy in 1998,[10][11] and was awarded Sri Lanka's
highest civil honour, Sri Lankabhimanya, in 2005.[12]

Contents [hide]
1 Biography
1.1 Writing career
1.2 Later years
2 Position on religion
3 Views on paranormal phenomena
4 Themes, style, and influences
5 Adapted screenplays
5.1 2001: A Space Odyssey
5.2 2010
5.3 Rendezvous with Rama
6 Beyond 2001
7 Essays and short stories
8 Concept of the geostationary communications satellite
9 Awards, honours and other recognition
10 Partial bibliography
10.1 Select Novels
10.2 Short story collections
10.3 Non-fiction
11 See also
12 Cited references
13 External links


[edit] Biography
Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England.[13] As a boy he
enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp
magazines. After secondary school and studying at Huish's Grammar
School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and
got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of
Education.[14]

During the Second World War he served in the Royal Air Force as a
radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence
system, which contributed to the RAF's success during the Battle of
Britain. Clarke spent most of his wartime service working on Ground
Controlled Approach (GCA) radar as documented in the semi-
autobiographical Glide Path, his only non-science-fiction novel.
Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, it proved
vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 after several years of
development. Clarke initially served in the ranks, and was a Corporal
instructor on radar at No 9 Radio School, RAF Yatesbury. He was
commissioned as a Pilot Officer (Technical Branch) on 27 May 1943.[15]
He was promoted Flying Officer on 27 November 1943.[16] He was
appointed chief training instructor at RAF Honiley and was demobilised
with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war he earned a first-
class degree in mathematics and physics at King's College London.

In the postwar years, Clarke became the Chairman of the British
Interplanetary Society from 1946-1947 [17] and again from 1951-1953
[18]. Although he was not the originator of the concept of
geostationary satellites, one of his most important contributions may
be his idea that they would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
advanced this idea in a paper privately circulated among the core
technical members of the BIS in 1945. The concept was published in
Wireless World in October of that year.[19][20][21] Clarke also wrote
a number of non-fiction books describing the technical details and
societal implications of rocketry and space flight. The most notable
of these may be The Exploration of Space (1951) and The Promise of
Space (1968). In recognition of these contributions the geostationary
orbit 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) above the equator is officially
recognized by the International Astronomical Union as a Clarke Orbit.
[22]

On a trip to Florida in 1953[23] Clarke met and quickly married
Marilyn Mayfield, a 22-year-old American divorcee with a young son.
They separated permanently after six months, although the divorce was
not finalised until 1964.[24] "The marriage was incompatible from the
beginning", says Clarke.[24] Clarke never remarried but was close to
Leslie Ekanayake, who died in 1977. In his biography of Stanley
Kubrick, John Baxter cites Clarke's homosexuality as a reason why
Clarke relocated, due to more tolerant laws in regards to
homosexuality in Sri Lanka.[25] Journalists who inquired of Clarke
whether he was gay were told, "No, merely mildly cheerful."[26]
However, Michael Moorcock has written

Everyone knew he was gay. In the 1950s I'd go out drinking with his
boyfriend. We met his proteges, western and eastern, and their
families: people who had only the most generous praise for his
kindness. Self-absorbed he might be, and a teetotaller, but an
impeccable gent through and through.[27]
Moorcook's assertion is not supported by other reports, although in an
interview in the July 1986 issue of Playboy magazine,[28] Clarke
stated "Of course. Who hasn't?" when asked if he has had bisexual
experiences.[29]

Clarke also maintained a vast collection of manuscripts and personal
memoirs, maintained by his brother Fred Clarke in Taunton, Somerset,
England, and referred to as the "Clarkives." Clarke has said that some
of his private diaries will not be published until 30 years after his
death. When asked why they were sealed up, he answered "'Well, there
might be all sorts of embarrassing things in them".[30]

[edit] Writing career
While Clarke had a few stories published in fanzines, between 1937 and
1945, his first professional sales appeared in Astounding Science
Fiction in 1946: "Loophole" was published in April, while "Rescue
Party", his first sale, was published in May. Along with his writing
Clarke briefly worked as Assistant Editor of Science Abstracts (1949)
before devoting himself to writing full-time from 1951 onward. Clarke
also contributed to the Dan Dare series published in Eagle, and his
first three published novels were written for children.

Clarke corresponded with C. S. Lewis in the 1940s and 1950s and they
once met in an Oxford pub, The Eastgate, to discuss science fiction
and space travel. Clarke, after Lewis's death, voiced great praise for
him, saying the Ransom Trilogy was one of the few works of science
fiction that could be considered literature.

In 1948 he wrote "The Sentinel" for a BBC competition. Though the
story was rejected it changed the course of Clarke's career. Not only
was it the basis for A Space Odyssey, but "The Sentinel" also
introduced a more mystical and cosmic element to Clarke's work. Many
of Clarke's later works feature a technologically advanced but still-
prejudiced mankind being confronted by a superior alien intelligence.
In the cases of The City and the Stars (and its original version,
Against the Fall of Night), Childhood's End, and the 2001 series, this
encounter produces a conceptual breakthrough that accelerates humanity
into the next stage of its evolution. In Clarke's authorized
biography, Neil McAleer writes that: "many readers and critics still
consider [Childhood's End] Arthur C. Clarke's best novel."[24]

Clarke lived in Sri Lanka from 1956 until his death in 2008, having
emigrated there when it was still called Ceylon, first in Unawatuna on
the south coast, and then in Colombo.[26] Clarke held citizenship of
both the UK and Sri Lanka.[31] He was an avid scuba diver and a member
of the Underwater Explorers Club. Living in Sri Lanka afforded him the
opportunity to visit the ocean year-round. It also inspired the locale
for his novel The Fountains of Paradise in which he described a space
elevator. This, he believed, ultimately will be his legacy, more so
than geostationary satellites, once space elevators make rocket based
access to space obsolete.[32]

His many predictions culminated in 1958 when he began a series of
essays in various magazines that eventually became Profiles of the
Future published in book form in 1962. A timetable[33] up to the year
2100 describes inventions and ideas including such things as a "global
library" for 2005.

[edit] Later years
In the early 1970s Clarke signed a three-book publishing deal, a
record for a science-fiction writer at the time. The first of the
three was Rendezvous with Rama in 1973, which won him all the main
genre awards and has spawned sequels that, along with the 2001 series,
formed the backbone of his later career.

In 1975 Clarke's short story "The Star" was not included in a new high
school English textbook in Sri Lanka because of concerns that it might
offend Roman Catholics even though it had already been selected. The
same textbook also caused controversy because it replaced
Shakespeare's work with that of Bob Dylan, John Lennon and Isaac
Asimov.

In the 1980s Clarke became well known to many for his television
programmes Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World, Arthur C. Clarke's
World of Strange Powers and Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious Universe. In
1986 he was named a Grand Master by the Science Fiction Writers of
America.[34] In 1988 he was diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, having
originally contracted polio in 1959, and needed to use a wheelchair
most of the time thereafter.[26] Sir Arthur C Clarke was for many
years a Vice Patron of the British Polio Fellowship.[35]

In the 1989 Queen's Birthday Honours Clarke was appointed Commander of
the Order of the British Empire (CBE) "for services to British
cultural interests in Sri Lanka".[36] The same year he became the
first Chancellor of the International Space University, serving from
1989 to 2004 and he also served as Chancellor of Moratuwa University
in Sri Lanka from 1979 to 2002.

In 1994, Clarke appeared in a science fiction film; he portrayed
himself in the telefilm Without Warning, an American production about
an apocalyptic alien first contact scenario presented in the form of a
faux newscast.

On 26 May 2000 he was made a Knight Bachelor "for services to
literature" at a ceremony in Colombo.[11][37] The award of a
knighthood had been announced in the 1998 New Year Honours,[10][38]
but investiture with the award had been delayed, at Clarke's request,
because of an accusation, by the British tabloid The Sunday Mirror, of
paedophilia.[39][40] The charge was subsequently found to be baseless
by the Sri Lankan police.[41][42] According to The Daily Telegraph
(London), the Mirror subsequently published an apology, and Clarke
chose not to sue for defamation.[43][44] Clarke was then duly
knighted.

Although he and his home were unharmed by the 2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake tsunami, his "Arthur C. Clarke Diving School" at Hikkaduwa
was destroyed. He made humanitarian appeals, and the Arthur C. Clarke
Foundation worked towards a better disaster notification systems.[45]
The school has since been rebuilt.

In September 2007, he provided a video greeting for NASA's Cassini
probe's flyby of Iapetus (which plays an important role in 2001: A
Space Odyssey).[46] In December 2007 on his 90th birthday, Clarke
recorded a video message to his friends and fans bidding them good-bye.
[47]

Clarke died in Sri Lanka on 19 March 2008 after suffering from
breathing problems, according to Rohan de Silva, one of his aides.[26]
[48][49][50]

Only a few days before he died, he had reviewed the manuscript of his
final work, The Last Theorem, on which he had collaborated by e-mail
with his contemporary Frederik Pohl.[51] The book was published after
Clarke's death.[52]

Clarke was buried in Colombo in traditional Sri Lankan fashion on 22
March. His younger brother, Fred Clarke, and his Sri Lankan adoptive
family were among the thousands in attendance.[53]

[edit] Position on religion
Themes of religion and spirituality appear in much of Clarke's
writing, though his position on "Religion" is ultimately somewhat
complicated. Although his œuvre was not explicitly religious — “Any
path to knowledge is a path to God — or Reality, whichever word one
prefers to use”, he said — he did give Man’s journey a mystical
significance and a quasi-religious intensity,[54] and described
himself as 'fascinated by the concept of God'. When he entered the
RAF, he insisted that his dog tags be marked "pantheist" rather than
the default, Church of England.[24] In 2000, Clarke told the Sri
Lankan newspaper, The Island, "I don't believe in God or an
afterlife,"[55] and he identifies himself as an atheist.[56] He was
honoured as a Humanist Laureate in the International Academy of
Humanism.[57] He has also described himself as a "crypto-Buddhist",
insisting that Buddhism is not a religion.[58] He displayed little
interest about religion early in his life, for example, only
discovering a few months after marrying his wife, that she had strong
Presbyterian beliefs.

In a three-day "dialogue on man and his world" with Alan Watts, Clarke
stated that he was biased against religion and said that he could not
forgive religions for what he perceived as their inability to prevent
atrocities and wars over time.[59]

In a reflection of the dialogue where he more broadly stated
"mankind", his introduction to the penultimate episode of Mysterious
World, entitled, Strange Skies, Clarke said, "I sometimes think that
the universe is a machine designed for the perpetual astonishment of
astronomers."

Near the very end of that same episode, the last segment of which
covered the Star of Bethlehem, he stated that his favourite theory[60]
was that it might be a pulsar. Given that pulsars were discovered in
the interval between his writing the short story, The Star (1955), and
making Mysterious World (1980), and given the more recent discovery of
pulsar PSR B1913+16, he said, "How romantic, if even now, we can hear
the dying voice of a star, which heralded the Christian era."[60]

Clarke left written instructions for a funeral that stated:
"Absolutely no religious rites of any kind, relating to any religious
faith, should be associated with my funeral."[61]

A famous quote of Clarke's is often cited: "One of the great tragedies
of mankind is that morality has been hijacked by religion."[58]

[edit] Views on paranormal phenomena
Early in his career, Clarke had a fascination with the paranormal and
stated that it was part of the inspiration for his novel Childhood's
End. Citing the numerous promising paranormal claims that were shown
to be fraudulent, Clarke described his earlier openness to the
paranormal having turned to being "an almost total skeptic" by the
time of his 1992 biography.[24] During interviews, both in 1993 and
2004–2005, he stated that he did not believe in reincarnation, citing
that there was no mechanism to make it possible, though he stated "I'm
always paraphrasing J. B. S. Haldane: 'The universe is not only
stranger than we imagine, it's stranger than we can imagine.'"[62][63]
(He loved quoting Haldane.)[24] He described the idea of reincarnation
as fascinating, but favored a finite existence.[64]

Clarke was well known for his television series investigating
paranormal phenomena Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World, Arthur C.
Clarke's Mysterious Universe and Arthur C. Clarke's World of Strange
Powers, enough to be parodied in an episode of The Goodies in which
his show is canceled after it is claimed he does not exist.

[edit] Themes, style, and influences
Clarke's work is marked by an optimistic view of science empowering
mankind's exploration of the Solar System, and the world's oceans.
Clarke's images of the future often feature a Utopian setting with
highly developed technology, ecology, and society, based on the
author's ideals.[65] His early published stories would usually feature
the extrapolation of a technological innovation or scientific
breakthrough into the underlying decadence of his own society.

"The Sentinel" (1948) introduced a religious theme to Clarke's work, a
theme that he later explored more deeply in The City and the Stars
(and its earlier version, Against the Fall of Night). Surprisingly for
a writer who is often held up as an example of hard science fiction's
obsession with technology, three of Clarke's novels have this as a
theme. Another theme of "The Sentinel" was the notion that the
evolution of an intelligent species would eventually make them
something close to gods, which was also explored in his 1953 novel
Childhood's End. He also briefly touched upon this idea in his novel
Imperial Earth. This idea of transcendence through evolution seems to
have been influenced by Olaf Stapledon, who wrote a number of books
dealing with this theme. Clarke has said of Stapledon's 1930 book Last
and First Men that "No other book had a greater influence on my
life ... [It] and its successor Star Maker (1937) are the twin summits
of [Stapledon's] literary career".[66]

Clarke also took a major interest in "Inner Space", which can be seen
in his stories, Big Game Hunt, The Deep Range and The Shining Ones, as
well as Dolphin Island.

[edit] Adapted screenplays
[edit] 2001: A Space Odyssey
Clarke's first venture into film was the Stanley Kubrick directed
2001: A Space Odyssey. Kubrick and Clarke had met in New York City in
1964 to discuss the possibility of a collaborative film project. As
the idea developed, it was decided that the story for the film was to
be loosely based on Clarke's short story "The Sentinel", written in
1948 as an entry in a BBC short story competition. Originally, Clarke
was going to write the screenplay for the film, but Kubrick suggested
during one of their brainstorming meetings that before beginning on
the actual script, they should let their imaginations soar free by
writing a novel first, which the film would be based on upon its
completion. "This is more or less the way it worked out, though toward
the end, novel and screenplay were being written simultaneously, with
feedback in both directions. Thus I rewrote some sections after seeing
the movie rushes -- a rather expensive method of literary creation,
which few other authors can have enjoyed."[67] The novel ended up
being published a few months after the release of the movie.

Due to the hectic schedule of the film's production, Kubrick and
Clarke had difficulty collaborating on the book. Clarke completed a
draft of the novel at the end of 1964 with the plan to publish in 1965
in advance of the film's release in 1966. After many delays the film
was released in the spring of 1968, before the book was completed. The
book was credited to Clarke alone. Clarke later complained that this
had the effect of making the book into a novelisation, that Kubrick
had manipulated circumstances to downplay Clarke's authorship. For
these and other reasons, the details of the story differ slightly from
the book to the movie. The film contains little explanation for the
events taking place. Clarke, on the other hand, wrote thorough
explanations of "cause and effect" for the events in the novel. James
Randi later recounted that upon seeing 2001 for the first time, Clarke
left the movie theatre during the first break crying because he was so
upset about how the movie had turned out.[68] Despite their
differences, both film and novel were well received.[69][70][71]

In 1972, Clarke published The Lost Worlds of 2001, which included his
accounts of the production, and alternate versions, of key scenes. The
"special edition" of the novel A Space Odyssey (released in 1999)
contains an introduction by Clarke in which he documents the events
leading to the release of the novel and film.

[edit] 2010
In 1982 Clarke continued the 2001 epic with a sequel, 2010: Odyssey
Two. This novel was also made into a film, 2010, directed by Peter
Hyams for release in 1984. Because of the political environment in
America in the 1980s, the film presents a Cold War theme, with the
looming tensions of nuclear warfare not featured in the novel. The
film was not considered to be as revolutionary or artistic as 2001,
but the reviews were still positive.

Clarke's email correspondence with Hyams was published in 1984.[72]
[73] Titled The Odyssey File: The Making of 2010, and co-authored with
Hyams, it illustrates his fascination with the then-pioneering medium
of email and its use for them to communicate on an almost daily basis
at the time of planning and production of the film while living on
different continents. The book also includes Clarke's list of the best
science-fiction films ever made.

Clarke appeared in the film, first as the man feeding the pigeons
while Dr. Heywood Floyd is engaged in a conversation in front of the
White House. Later, in the hospital scene with David Bowman's mother,
an image of the cover of Time portrays Clarke as the American
President and Kubrick as the Russian Premier.

[edit] Rendezvous with Rama
Clarke's award-winning 1972 novel Rendezvous with Rama was optioned
many years ago, but is currently in "development hell". Director David
Fincher is attached to the project, together with actor Morgan Freeman.
[citation needed]

[edit] Beyond 2001
2001: A Space Odyssey, Clarke's most famous work, goes well beyond the
1968 movie. Its 1984 sequel, 2010 was based on Clarke's 1982 novel,
2010: Odyssey Two. There were two further sequels that have not been
adapted to the cinema: 2061: Odyssey Three and 3001: The Final
Odyssey.

In 2061, Halley's Comet swings back to nearby Earth, and Clarke uses
the event as an excuse to take an aged Dr. Heywood Floyd on a romp
through the solar system, visiting the comet before crash-landing on
Europa, where he discovers the fates of Dave Bowman, HAL 9000, and the
Europan life-forms which have been protected by the Monoliths.

With 3001: The Final Odyssey, Clarke returns to examine the character
of astronaut Frank Poole, who was killed outside Discovery by HAL in
the original novel and film, but whose body was revived in the year
3001.

[edit] Essays and short stories
Most of Clarke's essays (from 1934 to 1998) can be found in the book
Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! (2000). Most of his short stories can
be found in the book The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (2001).
Another collection of early essays was published in The View from
Serendip (1977), which also included one short piece of fiction, "When
the Twerms Came". He wrote short stories under the pseudonyms of E. G.
O'Brien and Charles Willis.

[edit] Concept of the geostationary communications satellite

Geostationary orbitMain article: Geostationary orbit
Clarke's most important scientific contribution may be his idea that
geostationary satellites would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
described this concept in a paper titled Extra-Terrestrial Relays —
Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?, published in
Wireless World in October 1945.[74] The geostationary orbit is now
sometimes known as the Clarke Orbit or the Clarke Belt in his honour.

However, it is not clear that this article was actually the
inspiration for the modern telecommunications satellite. John R.
Pierce, of Bell Labs, arrived at the idea independently in 1954 and he
was actually involved in the Echo satellite and Telstar projects.
Moreover, Pierce stated that the idea was "in the air" at the time and
certain to be developed regardless of Clarke's publication. In an
interview given shortly before his death, Clarke was asked whether he
thought communications satellites would become important; he replied

"I'm often asked why I didn't try to patent the idea of communications
satellites. My answer is always, ‘A patent is really a license to be
sued.' "[75]

Though different from Clarke's idea of telecom relay, the idea of
communicating with satellites in geostationary orbit itself had been
described earlier. For example, the concept of geostationary
satellites was described in Hermann Oberth's 1923 book Die Rakete zu
den Planetenräumen[76] (The Rocket into Interplanetary Space) and then
the idea of radio communication with those satellites in Herman
Potočnik's (written under the pseudonym Hermann Noordung) 1928 book
Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-Motor (The
Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor) sections: Providing for
Long Distance Communications and Safety[77] and (possibly referring to
the idea of relaying messages via satellite, but not that 3 would be
optimal) Observing and Researching the Earth's Surface[78] published
in Berlin. Clarke acknowledged the earlier concept in his book
Profiles of the Future.[79]

[edit] Awards, honours and other recognition
He won the UNESCO-Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science in
1961.[80]
Following the release of 2001, Clarke became much in demand as a
commentator on science and technology, especially at the time of the
Apollo space program. The fame of 2001 was enough to get the Command
Module of the Apollo 13 craft named "Odyssey".[81]
Shared a 1969 Academy Award nomination with Stanley Kubrick in the
category, Best Writing, Story and Screenplay - Written Directly for
the Screen for 2001: A Space Odyssey.[82]
In 1986, Clarke provided a grant to fund the prize money (initially
£1,000) for the Arthur C. Clarke Award for the best science fiction
novel published in the United Kingdom in the previous year. In 2001
the prize was increased to £2001, and its value now matches the year
(e.g., £2005 in 2005).
Clarke received a CBE in 1989,[36] and was knighted in 2000.[10][37]
[38] Clarke's health did not allow him to travel to London to receive
the honour personally from the Queen, so the United Kingdom's High
Commissioner to Sri Lanka invested him as a Knight Bachelor at a
ceremony in Colombo.[11]
In 1994, Clarke was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize by law professor
Glenn Reynolds.[83]
In 2000, he was named a Distinguished Supporter of the British
Humanist Association.[84]
The 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter is named in honour of Sir Arthur's
works.
In 2003, Sir Arthur was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of
Technology where he appeared on stage via a 3-D hologram with a group
of old friends which included Jill Tarter, Neil Armstrong, Lewis
Branscomb, Charles Townes, Freeman Dyson, Bruce Murray and Scott
Brown.
In 2004, Sir Arthur was awarded the Heinlein Award for outstanding
achievement in hard or science-oriented science fiction.[85]
In 2005 he lent his name to the inaugural Sir Arthur Clarke Awards —
dubbed "the Space Oscars". His brother attended the awards ceremony,
and presented an award specially chosen by Arthur (and not by the
panel of judges who chose the other awards) to the British
Interplanetary Society.
On 14 November 2005 Sri Lanka awarded Arthur C. Clarke its highest
civilian award, the Sri Lankabhimanya (The Pride of Sri Lanka), for
his contributions to science and technology and his commitment to his
adopted country.[12]
Sir Arthur was the Honorary Board Chair of the Institute for
Cooperation in Space, founded by Carol Rosin, and served on the Board
of Governors of the National Space Society, a space advocacy
organisation originally founded by Dr. Wernher von Braun.
An asteroid was named in Clarke's honour, 4923 Clarke (the number was
assigned prior to, and independently of, the name - 2001, however
appropriate, was unavailable, having previously been assigned to
Albert Einstein).
A species of ceratopsian dinosaur, Serendipaceratops arthurcclarkei,
discovered in Inverloch in Australia.
The Learning Resource Centre at Richard Huish College, Taunton, which
Clarke attended when it was Huish Grammar School, is named after him.
Clarke was a distinguished vice-president of the H. G. Wells Society,
being strongly influenced by H. G. Wells as a science-fiction writer.
[edit] Partial bibliography
Main article: List of works by Arthur C. Clarke
[edit] Select Novels
Prelude to Space (1951)
The Sands of Mars (1951)
Childhood's End (1953)
The City and the Stars (1956)
A Fall of Moondust (1961) (Hugo nominee, 1963[86])
2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Rendezvous with Rama (1972) (BSFA and Nebula Awards winner, 1973[87];
Hugo, Campbell, and Locus Awards winner, 1974[88])
A Meeting with Medusa (Nebula Award for best novella) (1972)
Imperial Earth (1975)
The Fountains of Paradise (1979) (Hugo Award winner, BSFA nominee, 1979
[89]; and Nebula Award winner, Locus Award nominee, 1980[90])
2010: Odyssey Two (1982) (Hugo and Locus Awards nominee, 1983[91])
The Songs of Distant Earth (1986)
2061: Odyssey Three (1987)
3001: The Final Odyssey (1997)
The Light of Other Days (2000) (with Stephen Baxter)
[edit] Short story collections
Expedition to Earth (1953)
Reach for Tomorrow (1956)
Tales from the White Hart (1957)
The Other Side of the Sky (1958)
Tales of Ten Worlds (1962)
The Nine Billion Names of God (1967)
The Wind from the Sun (1972)
The Best of Arthur C. Clarke (1973)
The Sentinel (1983)
The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (2001)
[edit] Non-fiction
The Exploration of Space. New York: Harper, 1951
Voices from the Sky: Previews of the Coming Space Age. New York:
Harper & Row, 1965
Astounding Days: A Science Fictional Autobiography. London: Gollancz,
1989
Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! : Collected Works 1934-1998. New York:
St. Martin’s Press, 1999
The View From Serendip. Random House. ISBN 0394417968. 1977
[edit] See also
Arthur C. Clarke Award
Clarke's three laws
Space Odyssey
[edit] Cited references
^ a b "Arthur C. Clarke". books and writers. 2003. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/aclarke.htm.
Retrieved 2008-03-18.
^ "Mysterious World" (1980) at the Internet Movie Database
^ Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World on YouTube. Retrieved on 23
March 2008.
^ The 1945 Proposal by Arthur C. Clarke for Geostationary Satellite
Communications
^ The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation
^ Moon Miners' Manifesto: Arthur C Clarke nominated for Nobel
^ Yahoomc: test
^ Campaign for gorilla-friendly mobiles| News | This is London
^ "Remembering Arthur C. Clarke".
http://www.natureseychelles.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=326&Itemid=106.
Retrieved 2008-03-27.
^ a b c "The new knight of science fiction". BBC News (BBC). January
1, 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/43739.stm. Retrieved 26
August 2009.
^ a b c "Arthur C Clarke knighted". BBC News (BBC). May 26, 2000.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/765385.stm. Retrieved 26 August
2009.
^ a b Government Notification—National Honours, November 2005.
Retrieved on 20 October 2008
^ "Science fiction author Arthur C Clarke dies aged 90". The Times. 19
March 2008. http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article3579120.ece.
Retrieved 2008-03-19. "Science fiction writer Sir Arthur C Clarke has
died aged 90 in his adopted home of Sri Lanka, it was confirmed
tonight."
^ London Gazette: no. 34321, p. 5798, 8 September 1936. Retrieved on
2008-03-19.
^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36089, pp. 3162–3163, 9 July 1943.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36271, p. 5289, 30 November c1943.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ Journal of the British Interplanetary Society Vol 6 (1946)
^ Parkinson, B. (2008) (Ed.)'Interplanetary - A History of the British
Interplanetary Society', p.93
^ "Arthur C. Clarke Extra Terrestrial Relays".
http://www.lsi.usp.br/~rbianchi/clarke/ACC.ETRelaysFull.html.
Retrieved 2007-02-08.
^ "Peacetime Uses for V2" (JPG). Wireless World. February 1945.
Loading Image.... Retrieved
2007-02-08.
^ "Extra-Terrestrial Relays Can Rocket Stations Give World-wide Radio
Coverage?". Wireless World. October 1945. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/clarke/ww2.asp.
Retrieved 2007-02-08.
^ "Clarke Foundation Biography". http://www.clarkefoundation.org/acc/biography.php.
Retrieved 2008-03-19.
^ Arthur C Clarke - a quick summary
^ a b c d e f McAleer, Neil. "Arthur C. Clarke: The Authorized
Biography", Contemporary Books, Chicago, 1992. ISBN 0-8092-3720-2
^ Baxter, John (1997). Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. New York: Carroll
& Graff. p. 203. ISBN 0786704853. "But Clarke and Kubrick made a
match. [...] Both had a streak of homoeroticism[...]"
^ a b c d "Arthur C. Clarke, Premier Science Fiction Writer, Dies at
90.". New York Times. 18 March 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/18/books/18cnd-clarke.html?hp.
Retrieved 2008-03-19. "Arthur C. Clarke, a writer whose seamless blend
of scientific expertise and poetic imagination helped usher in the
space age, died early Wednesday in Colombo, Sri Lanka, where he had
lived since 1956. He was 90. He had battled debilitating post-polio
syndrome for years."
^ Michael Moorcock (2008-03-22). "Brave New Worlds". The Guardian.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/mar/22/arthurcclarke. Retrieved
2008-08-25.
^ NNDB page on Clarke
^ Clarke's interview in Playboy magazine
^ Man on the moon
^ "Happy Birthday Sir Arthur C. Clarke!". Sunday Observer. 2005-12-11.
http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2005/12/11/new27.html. Retrieved
2007-02-08.
^ Personal e-mail from Sir Arthur Clarke to Jerry Stone, Director of
the Sir Arthur Clarke Awards, 1 November 2006
^ "Chart of the Future". Loading Image....
Retrieved 2007-02-08.
^ SFWA Grand Masters
^ British Polio Fellowship - Home
^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 51772, p. 16, 16 June 1989.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ a b Letters Patent were issued by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
on 16 March 2000 to authorise this. (see London Gazette: no. 55796, p.
3167, 21 March 2000. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.)
^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 54993, p. 2, 30 December 1997.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ It doesn't do any harm ... most of the damage comes from fuss made.
Sunday Mirror, Feb 1, 1998 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_19980201/ai_n14474884
Retrieved on 2008-03-24
^ Smirk of a pervert and a liar. Sunday Mirror, Feb 8, 1998
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_19980208/ai_n14474575
Retrieved on 2008-03-24
^ "Sci-fi novelist cleared of sex charges". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/74938.stm.
Retrieved 2008-02-11.
^ "Child sex file could close on sci-fi writer". Irish Examiner.
http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/1998/08/13/fhead.htm. Retrieved
2007-03-19.
^ "Sir Arthur C Clarke". The Daily Telegraph. 20 March 2008.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/19/db1904.xml.
Retrieved 2008-03-27.
^ http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article3587168.ece
^ Sir Arthur C. Clarke (February 2005), "Letter from Sri Lanka", Wired
(San Francisco: Condé Nast) 13.02, ISSN 1059-1028,
http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.02/letter.html, retrieved August
17, 2009
^ Video greeting to NASA JPL by Arthur C. Clarke. Retrieved 24
September 2007
^ "Sir Arthur C Clarke 90th Birthday reflections". 2007-12-10.
Retrieved 2008-02-22.
^ Writer Arthur C Clarke dies at 90, BBC News, 18 March 2008
^ Sci-fi guru Arthur C. Clarke dies at 90, MSNBC, 18 March 2008
^ "Arthur C. Clarke: The Wired Words". Wired Blog Network. 18 March
2008. http://blog.wired.com/underwire/2008/03/arthur-c-clarke.html.
Retrieved 2008-03-22.
^ Pohl, Frederik (January 5, 2009). "Sir Arthur and I". The Way the
Future Blogs. http://www.thewaythefutureblogs.com/2009/01/sir-arthur-and-i/.
Retrieved January 22, 2009.
^ "Last odyssey for sci-fi guru Arthur C. Clarke". Agence France-
Presse. 19 March 2008. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jWab-TXO_DymFmU13CzSNVObE6FQ.
Retrieved 2008-03-20. "Just a few days before he died, Clarke reviewed
the final manuscript of his latest novel, "The Last Theorem" co-
written with American author Frederik Pohl, which is to be published
later this year."
^ "Sci-fi writer Clarke laid to rest". BBC. 2008-03-22.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7309598.stm. Retrieved
2008-03-22.
^ "Sir Arthur C. Clarke: The Times obituary". Times Online.
2008-03-19. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article3582978.ece.
Retrieved 2008-08-06.
^ Midwee01
^ "…Stanley [Kubrick] is a Jew and I'm an atheist". Clarke quoted in
Jeromy Agel (Ed.) (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001: p.306
^ The International Academy Of Humanism at the website of the Council
for Secular Humanism. (Retrieved 18 October 2007).
^ a b Cherry, Matt (1999). "God, Science, and Delusion: A Chat With
Arthur C. Clarke". Free Inquiry (Amherst, NY: Council for Secular
Humanism) 19 (2). ISSN 0272-0701. http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=clarke_19_2.
Retrieved 2008-04-16.
^ Clarke, Arthur C.; Watts, Alan (January). At the Interface:
Technology and Mysticism. 19. Chicago, Ill.: HMH Publishing. 94. ISBN
0032-1478. OCLC 3534353.
^ a b "Mysterious world strange skies 3 of 3". YouTube.
Retrieved
2008-08-06.
^ "TIME Quotes of the Day". 2008-03-19. http://www.time.com/time/quotes/0,26174,1723669,00.html.
Retrieved 2008-03-20.
^ Jeff Greenwald (July/August 1993), "Arthur C. Clarke On Life", Wired
(San Francisco: Condé Nast) 1.03, ISSN 1059-1028,
http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/1.03/clarke.html, retrieved August
17, 2009
^ José Cordeiro (July/August 2008), The Futurist Interviews Sir.
Arthur C. Clarke, 42(4), Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, ISSN
0016-3317, http://online.printmailcom.com/drupal/node/852, retrieved
August 16, 2009
^ Andrew Robinson (October 10, 1997), "The cosmic godfather", Times
Higher Education (London: TSL Education Ltd.), ISSN 0049-3929,
http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=103989&sectioncode=26,
retrieved August 17, 2009
^ Guy Riddihough, Review of The City and the Stars in Science , (4
July 2008) Vol. 321. no. 5885, pp. 42 - 43 DOI: 10.1126/science.
1161705: What marks the book out are Clarke's sweeping vistas, grand
ideas, and ultimately optimistic view of humankind's future in the
cosmos.
^ "Arthur C. Clarke Quotes". http://www.testermanscifi.org/ClarkeQuotesPart2.html.
Retrieved 2007-02-08.
^ Arthur C. Clarke, 90; scientific visionary, acclaimed writer of
'2001: A Space Odyssey'
^ "Randi shares some stories regarding his friend Arthur C. Clarke and
makes a comparison of Stanley Kubrick to Steve Jobs".
http://itricks.com/randishow/?p=21. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
^ "Box Office Mojo". http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=2001.htm.
Retrieved 2007-02-08.
^ "Movies. Go.com". http://movies.go.com/2001-a-space-odyssey/d825668/scifi.
Retrieved 2007-02-08.
^ "Amazon.com". http://www.amazon.com/dp/0451457994/. Retrieved
2007-02-08.
^ Arthur C. Clarke and Peter Hyams. The Odyssey File. Ballantine
Books, 1984.
^ Excerpt from The Odyssey File.
^ "Extra-Terrestrial Relays — Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio
Coverage?". Arthur C. Clark. October 1945.
http://www.clarkefoundation.org/docs/ClarkeWirelessWorldArticle.pdf.
Retrieved 2009-03-04.
^ "Final Thoughts from Sir Arthur C. Clarke". March 2008.
http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/mar08/6075. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
^ Kelso, Dr. T. S. (1998-05-01). "Basics of the Geostationary Orbit".
Satellite Times. http://celestrak.com/columns/v04n07/. Retrieved
2007-02-08.
^ "Providing for Long Distance Communications and Safety".
http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4026/noord45.html.
Retrieved 2008-12-23.
^ "Observing and Researching the Earth's Surface".
http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4026/noord51.html.
Retrieved 2008-12-23.
^ Clarke, Arthur C. (1984). Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry Into
the Limits of the Possible. New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart &
Wilson. pp. 205n. ISBN 0030697832. "INTELSAT, the International
Telecommunications Satellite Organisation which operates the global
system, has started calling it the Clarke orbit. Flattered though I
am, honesty compels me to point out that the concept of such an orbit
predates my 1945 paper 'Extra Terrestrial Relays' by at least twenty
years. I didn't invent it, but only annexed it."
^ Summary List of UNESCO Prizes: List of Prizewinners, p. 12
^ Peebles, Curtis. "Names of US manned spacecraft". Spaceflight, Vol.
20, 2, Fev. 1978. Spaceflight. http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/spaceflight/20/names.html.
Retrieved 2008-08-06.
^ Arthur C. Clarke - Awards
^ Burns, John F. "Colombo Journal; A Nonfiction Journey to a More
Peaceful World" New York Times, November 28, 1994
^ Iain Thomson (March 19, 2008), Sir Arthur C Clarke dies, Information
World Reviews, Oxford: VNU Business Publications, OCLC 61313783,
http://www.iwr.co.uk/vnunet/news/2212337/sir-arthur-c-clarke-dies,
retrieved August 18, 2009
^ "Sir Arthur Clarke Named Recipient of 2004 Heinlein Award". Press
release. May 22, 2004. http://www.heinleinsociety.org/pressreleases/clarkeheinleinaward.html.
Retrieved June 20, 2009.
^ "1963 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1963.
Retrieved 2009-06-30.
^ "1973 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1973.
Retrieved 2009-06-30.
^ "1974 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1974.
Retrieved 2009-06-30.
^ "1979 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1979.
Retrieved 2009-06-30.
^ "1980 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1980.
Retrieved 2009-06-30.
^ "1983 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1983.
Retrieved 2009-06-30.
[edit] External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C.
Clarke
The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation
Sir Arthur Clarke Awards
Sir Arthur C Clarke: Obituary and public tributes
Arthur C. Clarke at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Arthur C. Clarke at the Internet Movie Database
A Visit to "The Clarkives"
Arthur C. Clarke's Maelstrom II - a science-based mini drama
Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008) IAF 19 March 2008
Obituary: Arthur C. Clarke BBC 19 March 2008
Sir Arthur C Clarke: 90th Birthday Reflections
Obituary in The Times, 19 March 2008
Obituary in the Wall Street Journal, 20 March 2008
Obituary in guardian.co.uk, 19 March 2008
Obituary in the The New York Times, 19 March 2008
The knight of science fiction, The Hindu, 21 March 2008
Creating thought-tools for the times, The Hindu, 24 March 2008
Arthur C. Clake—Space.com report
Sir Arthur C. Clarke at Find a Grave
Delighted, Kerry O'Quinn, DoorQ.Com, Delighted! Kerry O'Quinn on
Arthur C. Clarke
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Houston Section,
Tribute to Sir Arthur C. Clarke, April Issue 2008 [1]
[hide]v • d • eArthur C. Clarke

Novels Prelude to Space • The Sands of Mars • Islands in the Sky •
Childhood's End • Earthlight • The Deep Range • A Fall of Moondust •
Dolphin Island • Glide Path • Imperial Earth • The Fountains of
Paradise • Songs of Distant Earth • Cradle • The Ghost from the Grand
Banks • The Hammer of God • Richter 10 • The Trigger • The Light of
Other Days • The Last Theorem

Novel series Space Odyssey 2001: A Space Odyssey • 2010: Odyssey Two •
2061: Odyssey Three • 3001: The Final Odyssey • The Lost Worlds of
2001

Rama series Rendezvous with Rama • Rama II • The Garden of Rama • Rama
Revealed

A Time Odyssey Time's Eye • Sunstorm • Firstborn

Vanamonde series Against the Fall of Night • The City and the Stars •
Beyond the Fall of Night


Short Story
Collections Expedition to Earth • Reach for Tomorrow • Tales from the
White Hart • The Other Side of the Sky • Tales of Ten Worlds • The
Nine Billion Names of God • Of Time and Stars • The Wind from the Sun
• The Best of Arthur C. Clarke • The Sentinel • Tales From Planet
Earth • More Than One Universe • The Collected Stories of Arthur C.
Clarke

Non-fiction Interplanetary Flight: an introduction to astronautics •
Profiles of the Future • The Promise of Space • The Lost Worlds of
2001 • The Odyssey File: The Making of 2010 • Ascent to Orbit •
Astounding Days • How the World Was One: Beyond the Global Village •
The Snows of Olympus - A Garden on Mars • An Encyclopedia of Claims,
Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural • Fractals: The
Colors of Infinity • Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! • The Coming of
the Space Age; famous accounts of man's probing of the universe

Adaptations 2001: A Space Odyssey (film) • 2001: A Space Odyssey
(comics) • 2010 (film) • Rendezvous with Rama (video game) • The Songs
of Distant Earth (album) • Rama (video game)

Related Mnematron • Serendipaceratops • Sir Arthur Clarke Award •
Geostationary orbit • Clarke's three laws • Arthur C. Clarke's
Mysterious World • Arthur C. Clarke's World of Strange Powers • Arthur
C. Clarke's Mysterious Universe

List of works





Persondata
NAME Clarke, Arthur Charles
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Clarke, Arthur C.
SHORT DESCRIPTION British and Sri Lankan Author and Inventor
DATE OF BIRTH 16 December 1917
PLACE OF BIRTH Minehead, Somerset, United Kingdom
DATE OF DEATH 19 March 2008
PLACE OF DEATH Colombo, Sri Lanka

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_C._Clarke"
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse

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protect it. Electromagnetic pulse
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Ebomb" redirects here. For EBOM, see Engineering bill of materials.
The term electromagnetic pulse (sometimes abbreviated EMP) has the
following meanings:

A burst of electromagnetic radiation that results from an explosion
(especially a nuclear explosion) or a suddenly fluctuating magnetic
field. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with
electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage
surges.
A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic
energy.
In military terminology, an EMP bomb detonated hundreds of kilometers
above the earth's surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic
pulse (HEMP) device. Nuclear electromagnetic bombs have three distinct
time components that result from different physical phenomena. Effects
of an EMP device depend on the altitude of the detonation, energy
yield, interactions with the earth's magnetic field, and shielding of
targets.

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Starfish Prime
1.2 Soviet Test 184
1.3 Non-nuclear history
2 Characteristics of nuclear EMP
3 Practical considerations for nuclear EMP
4 Generation of nuclear EMP
4.1 Weapon altitude
4.2 Weapon yield
4.3 Weapon distance
5 Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse
6 Post-Cold War attack scenarios
7 United States EMP vulnerability studies
8 Clarification of common misconceptions
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links


[edit] History
The fact that an electromagnetic pulse is produced by a nuclear
explosion was known since the earliest days of nuclear weapons
testing, but the magnitude of the EMP and the significance of its
effects were realized very slowly.[1]

During the first United States nuclear test in 1945, electronic
equipment was shielded due to Enrico Fermi's expectation of an
electromagnetic pulse from the detonation. The official technical
history for that first nuclear test states, "All signal lines were
completely shielded, in many cases doubly shielded. In spite of this
many records were lost because of spurious pickup at the time of the
explosion that paralyzed the recording equipment."[2] During British
nuclear testing in 1952–1953 there were instrumentation failures that
were attributed to "radioflash," which was then the British term for
EMP.[3][4]

The high altitude nuclear tests of 1962, as described below, increased
awareness of EMP beyond the original small population of nuclear
weapons scientists and engineers. The larger scientific community
became aware of the significance of the EMP problem after a series of
three articles were published about nuclear electromagnetic pulse in
1981 by William J. Broad in the weekly publication Science.[1][5][6]

[edit] Starfish Prime
Main article: Starfish Prime
In July 1962, a 1.44 megaton (6.0 PJ) United States nuclear test in
space, 400 kilometres (250 mi) above the mid-Pacific Ocean, called the
Starfish Prime test, demonstrated to nuclear scientists that the
magnitude and effects of a high altitude nuclear explosion were much
larger than had been previously calculated. Starfish Prime also made
those effects known to the public by causing electrical damage in
Hawaii, about 1,445 kilometres (898 mi) away from the detonation
point, knocking out about 300 streetlights, setting off numerous
burglar alarms and damaging a telephone company microwave link.[7]

The EMP damage of the Starfish Prime test was quickly repaired because
of the ruggedness (compared to today) of the electrical and electronic
infrastructure of Hawaii in 1962. Realization of the potential impacts
of EMP became more apparent to some scientists and engineers during
the 1970s as more sensitive solid-state electronics began to come into
widespread use.

The relatively small magnitude of the Starfish Prime EMP in Hawaii
(about 5,600 volts/meter) and the relatively small amount of damage
done (for example, only 1 to 3 percent of streetlights extinguished)
[8] led some scientists to believe, in the early days of EMP research,
that the problem might not be as significant as was later realized.
Newer calculations[9] showed that if the Starfish Prime warhead had
been detonated over the northern continental United States, the
magnitude of the EMP would have been much larger (22,000 to 30,000
volts/meter) because of the greater strength of the Earth's magnetic
field over the United States, as well as the different orientation of
the Earth's magnetic field at high latitudes. These new calculations,
combined with the accelerating reliance on EMP-sensitive
microelectronics, heightened awareness that the EMP threat could be a
very significant problem.

[edit] Soviet Test 184
Main article: The K Project
In 1962, the Soviet Union also performed a series of three EMP-
producing nuclear tests in space over Kazakhstan, which were the last
in the series called "The K Project".[10] Although these weapons were
much smaller (300 kilotons or 1.3 PJ) than the Starfish Prime test,
since those tests were done over a populated large land mass (and also
at a location where the Earth's magnetic field was greater), the
damage caused by the resulting EMP was reportedly much greater than in
the Starfish Prime nuclear test. The geomagnetic storm-like E3 pulse
(from the test designated as "Test 184") even induced an electrical
current surge in a long underground power line that caused a fire in
the power plant in the city of Karaganda. After the collapse of the
Soviet Union, the level of this damage was communicated informally to
scientists in the United States.[11] Formal documentation of some of
the EMP damage in Kazakhstan exists[12][13] but is still sparse in the
open scientific literature.

[edit] Non-nuclear history
The concept of the explosively pumped flux compression generator for
generating a non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse was conceived as early
as 1951 by Andrei Sakharov in the Soviet Union,[14] but nations have
usually kept their most recent work on non-nuclear EMP highly
classified until the technology was old enough for similar ideas to be
conceived by physicists in other nations.

According to some reports, the U.S. Navy used experimental non-nuclear
E-bombs during the 1991 Gulf War. These bombs utilized warheads that
converted the energy of conventional explosives into a pulse of radio
energy.[15] CBS News also reported that the U.S. dropped an E-bomb on
Iraqi TV during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but this has not been
confirmed.[16]

[edit] Characteristics of nuclear EMP
The case of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse differs from other kinds
of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) in being a complex electromagnetic
multi-pulse. The complex multi-pulse is usually described in terms of
three components, and these three components have been defined as such
by the international standards commission called the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).[17]

The three components of nuclear EMP, as defined by the IEC, are called
E1, E2 and E3.

The E1 pulse is the very fast component of nuclear EMP. The E1
component has an intense electric field that can quickly induce very
high voltages in electrical conductors. E1 is the component that can
destroy computers and communications equipment and is too fast for
ordinary lightning protectors.

The E1 component is produced when gamma radiation from the nuclear
detonation knocks electrons out of the atoms in the upper atmosphere.
The electrons travel in a generally downward direction at relativistic
speeds (more than 90 percent of the speed of light). This essentially
produces a large pulse of electrical current vertically in the upper
atmosphere over the entire affected area. This electrical current is
acted upon by the Earth's magnetic field to produce a very large, but
very brief, electromagnetic pulse over the affected area.[18]

The E2 component of the pulse has many similarities to the
electromagnetic pulses produced by lightning. Because of the
similarities to lightning-caused pulses and the widespread use of
lightning protection technology, the E2 pulse is generally considered
to be the easiest to protect against.

The E3 component of the pulse is a very slow pulse, lasting tens to
hundreds of seconds, that is caused by the nuclear detonation heaving
the Earth's magnetic field out of the way, followed by the restoration
of the magnetic field to its natural place. The E3 component has
similarities to a geomagnetic storm caused by a very severe solar
flare.[19][20] Like a geomagnetic storm, E3 can produce
geomagnetically induced currents in long electrical conductors, which
can then damage components such as power line transformers.

For a more thorough description of E3 damage mechanisms, see the main
article: Geomagnetically induced current

[edit] Practical considerations for nuclear EMP
The strongest part of the pulse lasts for only a fraction of a second,
but any unprotected electrical equipment — and anything connected to
electrical cables, which act as giant lightning rods or antennae —
will be affected by the pulse. Older, vacuum tube (valve) based
equipment is much less vulnerable to EMP than newer solid state
equipment; Soviet Cold War–era military aircraft often had avionics
based on vacuum tubes due both to limitations in Soviet solid-state
capabilities and a belief that the vacuum gear would survive better.
[1]

Although vacuum tubes are far more resistant to EMP than solid state
devices, other components in vacuum tube circuitry can be damaged by
EMP. Vacuum tube equipment actually was damaged in 1962 nuclear EMP
testing.[13] Also, the solid state PRC-77 VHF manpack radio survived
extensive EMP testing.[21] The earlier PRC-25, nearly identical except
for a vacuum tube final amplification stage, had been tested in EMP
simulators but was not certified to remain fully functional.

Many nuclear detonations have taken place using bombs dropped by
aircraft. The B-29 aircraft that delivered the nuclear weapons at
Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not lose power due to damage to their
electrical or electronic systems. This is simply because electrons
(ejected from the air by gamma rays) are stopped quickly in normal air
for bursts below roughly 10 km (about 6 miles), so they do not get a
chance to be significantly deflected by the Earth's magnetic field
(since the deflection causes the powerful EMP seen in high altitude
bursts). This fact does point out the limited use of smaller burst
altitudes for widespread EMP.[22]

If the aircraft carrying the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs had been
within the intense nuclear radiation zone when the bombs exploded over
those cities, then they would have suffered effects from the charge
separation (radial) EMP. But this only occurs within the severe blast
radius for detonations below about 10 km altitude.

During nuclear tests in 1962, EMP disruptions were suffered aboard
KC-135 photographic aircraft flying 300 km (190 mi) from the 410 kt
(1,700 TJ) Bluegill and 410 kt (1,700 TJ) Kingfish detonations (48 and
95 km (30 and 59 mi) burst altitude, respectively)[23] but the vital
aircraft electronics were far less sophisticated than today and the
aircraft were able to land safely.

[edit] Generation of nuclear EMP
Several major factors control the effectiveness of a nuclear EMP
weapon. These are:

The altitude of the weapon when detonated;
The yield and construction details of the weapon;
The distance from the weapon when detonated;
Geographical depth or intervening geographical features;
The local strength of the Earth's magnetic field.
Beyond a certain altitude a nuclear weapon will not produce any EMP,
as the gamma rays will have had sufficient distance to disperse. In
deep space or on worlds with no magnetic field (the moon or Mars for
example) there will be little or no EMP. This has implications for
certain kinds of nuclear rocket engines, such as Project Orion.

[edit] Weapon altitude

The mechanism for a 400 km high altitude burst EMP: gamma rays hit the
atmosphere between 20–40 km altitude, ejecting electrons which are
then deflected sideways by the Earth's magnetic field. This makes the
electrons radiate EMP over a massive area. Because of the curvature
and downward tilt of Earth's magnetic field over the USA, the maximum
EMP occurs south of the detonation and the minimum occurs to the north.
[24]
How the peak EMP on the ground varies with the weapon yield and burst
altitude. The yield here is the prompt gamma ray output measured in
kilotons. This varies from 0.115–0.5% of the total weapon yield,
depending on weapon design. The 1.4 Mt total yield 1962 Starfish Prime
test had a gamma output of 0.1%, hence 1.4 kt of prompt gamma rays.
(The blue 'pre-ionisation' curve applies to certain types of
thermonuclear weapon, where gamma and x-rays from the primary fission
stage ionise the atmosphere and make it electrically conductive before
the main pulse from the thermonuclear stage. The pre-ionisation in
some situations can literally short out part of the final EMP, by
allowing a conduction current to immediately oppose the Compton
current of electrons.)[25][26]
How the area affected depends on the burst altitude.According to an
internet primer published by the Federation of American Scientists[27]

A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediate flux of gamma
rays from the nuclear reactions within the device. These photons in
turn produce high energy free electrons by Compton scattering at
altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. These electrons are then
trapped in the Earth's magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillating
electric current. This current is asymmetric in general and gives rise
to a rapidly rising radiated electromagnetic field called an
electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Because the electrons are trapped
essentially simultaneously, a very large electromagnetic source
radiates coherently.
The pulse can easily span continent-sized areas, and this radiation
can affect systems on land, sea, and air. The first recorded EMP
incident accompanied a high-altitude nuclear test over the South
Pacific and resulted in power system failures as far away as Hawaii. A
large device detonated at 400–500 km (250 to 312 miles) over Kansas
would affect all of the continental U.S. The signal from such an event
extends to the visual horizon as seen from the burst point.
Thus, for equipment to be affected, the weapon needs to be above the
visual horizon. Because of the nature of the pulse as a large, long,
high powered, noisy spike, it is doubtful that there would be much
protection if the explosion were seen in the sky just below the tops
of hills or mountains.

The altitude indicated above is greater than that of the International
Space Station and many low Earth orbit satellites. Large weapons could
have a dramatic impact on satellite operations and communications;
smaller weapons have less such potential.

[edit] Weapon yield
Typical nuclear weapon yields used during Cold War planning for EMP
attacks were in the range of 1 to 10 megatons (4.2 to 42 PJ)[28] This
is roughly 50 to 500 times the sizes of the weapons the United States
used in Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Physicists have testified at
United States Congressional hearings, however, that weapons with
yields of 10 kilotons (42 TJ) or less can produce a very large EMP.
[29]

The EMP at a fixed distance from a nuclear weapon does not depend
directly on the yield but at most only increases as the square root of
the yield (see the illustration to the right). This means that
although a 10 kiloton weapon has only 0.7% of the total energy release
of the 1.44-megaton Starfish Prime test, the EMP will be at least 8%
as powerful. Since the E1 component of nuclear EMP depends on the
prompt gamma ray output, which was only 0.1% of yield in Starfish
Prime but can be 0.5% of yield in pure fission weapons of low yield, a
10 kiloton bomb can easily be 5 x 8% = 40% as powerful as the 1.44
megaton Starfish Prime at producing EMP.[23]

The total prompt gamma ray energy in a fission explosion is 3.5% of
the yield, but in a 10 kiloton detonation the high explosive around
the bomb core absorbs about 85% of the prompt gamma rays, so the
output is only about 0.5% of the yield in kilotons. In the
thermonuclear Starfish Prime the fission yield was less than 100% to
begin with, and then the thicker outer casing absorbed about 95% of
the prompt gamma rays from the pusher around the fusion stage.
Thermonuclear weapons are also less efficient at producing EMP because
the first stage can pre-ionize the air[23] which becomes conductive
and hence rapidly shorts out the electron Compton currents generated
by the final, larger yield thermonuclear stage. Hence, small pure
fission weapons with thin cases are far more efficient at causing EMP
than most megaton bombs.

This analysis, however, only applies to the fast E1 and E2 components
of nuclear EMP. The geomagnetic storm-like E3 component of nuclear EMP
is more closely proportional to the total energy yield of the weapon.
[30]

[edit] Weapon distance
A unique and important aspect of nuclear EMP is that all of the
components of the electromagnetic pulse are generated outside of the
weapon. The important E1 component is generated by interaction with
the electrons in the upper atmosphere that are hit by gamma radiation
from the weapon — and the subsequent effects upon those electrons by
the Earth's magnetic field.[27]

For high-altitude nuclear explosions, this means that much of the EMP
is actually generated at a large distance from the detonation (where
the gamma radiation from the explosion hits the upper atmosphere).
This causes the electric field from the EMP to be remarkably uniform
over the large area affected.

According to the standard reference text on nuclear weapons effects
published by the U.S. Department of Defense, "The peak electric field
(and its amplitude) at the Earth's surface from a high-altitude burst
will depend upon the explosion yield, the height of the burst, the
location of the observer, and the orientation with respect to the
geomagnetic field. As a general rule, however, the field strength may
be expected to be tens of kilovolts per meter over most of the area
receiving the EMP radiation."[31]

The same reference book also states that, "... over most of the area
affected by the EMP the electric field strength on the ground would
exceed 0.5Emax. For yields of less than a few hundred kilotons, this
would not necessarily be true because the field strength at the
Earth's tangent could be substantially less than 0.5Emax."[31]

(Emax refers to the maximum electric field strength in the affected
area.)

In other words, the electric field strength in the entire area that is
affected by the EMP will be fairly uniform for weapons with a large
gamma ray output; but for much smaller weapons, the electric field may
fall off at a comparatively faster rate at large distances from the
detonation point.

It is the peak electric field of the EMP that determines the peak
voltage induced in equipment and other electrical conductors on the
ground, and most of the damage is determined by induced voltages.

For nuclear detonations within the atmosphere, the situation is more
complex. Within the range of gamma ray deposition, simple laws no
longer hold as the air is ionised and there are other EMP effects,
such as a radial electric field due to the separation of Compton
electrons from air molecules, together with other complex phenomena.
For a surface burst, absorption of gamma rays by air would limit the
range of gamma ray deposition to approximately 10 miles, while for a
burst in the lower-density air at high altitudes, the range of
deposition would be far greater.


[edit] Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse
Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NNEMP) is an electromagnetic pulse
generated without use of nuclear weapons. There are a number of
devices that can achieve this objective, ranging from a large low-
inductance capacitor bank discharged into a single-loop antenna or a
microwave generator to an explosively pumped flux compression
generator. To achieve the frequency characteristics of the pulse
needed for optimal coupling into the target, wave-shaping circuits and/
or microwave generators are added between the pulse source and the
antenna. A vacuum tube particularly suitable for microwave conversion
of high energy pulses is the vircator.[32]

NNEMP generators can be carried as a payload of bombs and cruise
missiles, allowing construction of electromagnetic bombs with
diminished mechanical, thermal and ionizing radiation effects and
without the political consequences of deploying nuclear weapons.

The range of NNEMP weapons (non-nuclear electromagnetic bombs) is
severely limited compared to nuclear EMP. This is because nearly all
NNEMP devices used as weapons require chemical explosives as their
initial energy source, but nuclear explosives have an energy yield on
the order of one million times that of chemical explosives of similar
weight.[33] In addition to the large difference in the energy density
of the initial energy source, the electromagnetic pulse from NNEMP
weapons must come from within the weapon itself, while nuclear weapons
generate EMP as a secondary effect, often at great distances from the
detonation.[26] These facts severely limit the range of NNEMP weapons
as compared to their nuclear counterparts, but allow for more surgical
target discrimination. The effect of small e-bombs has proven to be
sufficient for certain terrorist or military operations. Examples of
such operations include the destruction of certain fragile electronic
control systems of the type critical to the operation of many ground
vehicles and aircraft.[34]


A right front view of a Boeing E-4 advanced airborne command post
(AABNCP) on the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulator (HAGII-C) for
testing.
USS Estocin (FFG-15) moored near the Electro Magnetic Pulse Radiation
Environmental Simulator for Ships I (EMPRESS I) facility (antennae at
top of image).NNEMP generators also include large structures built to
generate EMP for testing of electronics to determine how well it
survives EMP.[35] In addition, the use of ultra-wideband radars can
generate EMP in areas immediately adjacent to the radar; this
phenomenon is only partly understood.[36]

Information about the EMP simulators used by the United States during
the latter part of the Cold War, along with more general information
about electromagnetic pulse, are now in papers under the care of the
SUMMA Foundation,[37] which is now hosted at the University of New
Mexico.

The SUMMA Foundation web site includes documentation about the huge
wooden Trestle simulator in New Mexico, which was the world's largest
EMP simulator.[38] Nearly all of these large EMP simulators used a
specialized version of a Marx generator.[3][4] The SUMMA Foundation
now has a 44-minute documentary movie on its web site called "TRESTLE:
Landmark of the Cold War"[39].

Many large EMP simulators were also built in the Soviet Union, as well
as in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, The Netherlands,
Switzerland and Italy.[3][4]




[edit] Post-Cold War attack scenarios
Typical modern scenarios seen in large numbers of news accounts and
opinion articles speculate about the use of nuclear weapons by rogue
states or terrorists in an EMP attack. Details of such scenarios are
always controversial. It is impossible to know what kind of
capabilities such terrorists might acquire, especially if they are
aided by state sponsors with access to advanced technology.

Some rogue states have developed an ability to deliver a light missile
payload to the necessary altitude for an EMP attack. Nuclear weapons
in general have a much heavier missile payload, however advanced
weapons design enables larger weapon yields with lighter weight. It is
difficult to know if any particular rogue state has the necessary
combination of advanced missile technology and nuclear weapons
technology to perform an effective nuclear EMP attack over an
industrialized country.

A common scenario is the detonation of a device over the middle of the
U.S. using long-range missiles that have historically been available
only to major military powers. An offshore detonation at high
altitude, by contrast, would present less technical difficulty and
would disrupt both an entire coast and regions hundreds of miles
inland (e.g. 120 mile altitude, 1,000 mile EMP radius).[40]

The United States military services have developed, and in some cases
have published, hypothetical EMP attack scenarios that are likely to
be much more technically accurate than those that appear in the
popular press.[41]

In 2009, Yael Shahar, a director of the International Institute for
Counter-Terrorism, reported that home-built handheld non-nuclear e-
bombs may become a significant threat to airliners.[34]

[edit] United States EMP vulnerability studies
The United States EMP Commission was authorized by the United States
Congress in Fiscal Year 2001, and re-authorized in Fiscal Year 2006.
The commission is formally known as the Commission to Assess the
Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack.
[42]

The United States EMP Commission has brought together a group of
notable scientists and technologists to compile several reports. In
2008, the EMP Commission released the Critical National
Infrastructures Report.[30] This report describes, in as much detail
as practical, the likely consequences of a nuclear EMP on civilian
infrastructures. Although this report was directed specifically toward
the United States, most of the information can obviously be
generalized to the civilian infrastructure of other industrialized
countries.

The 2008 report was a followup to a more generalized report issued by
the commission in 2004.[20][43]

In written testimony delivered to the United States Senate in 2005, an
EMP Commission staff member reported:

The EMP Commission sponsored a worldwide survey of foreign scientific
and military literature to evaluate the knowledge, and possibly the
intentions, of foreign states with respect to electromagnetic pulse
(EMP) attack. The survey found that the physics of EMP phenomenon and
the military potential of EMP attack are widely understood in the
international community, as reflected in official and unofficial
writings and statements. The survey of open sources over the past
decade finds that knowledge about EMP and EMP attack is evidenced in
at least Britain, France, Germany, Israel, Egypt, Taiwan, Sweden,
Cuba, India, Pakistan, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran, North Korea,
China and Russia.
. . .
Many foreign analysts–particularly in Iran, North Korea, China, and
Russia–view the United States as a potential aggressor that would be
willing to use its entire panoply of weapons, including nuclear
weapons, in a first strike. They perceive the United States as having
contingency plans to make a nuclear EMP attack, and as being willing
to execute those plans under a broad range of circumstances.
Russian and Chinese military scientists in open source writings
describe the basic principles of nuclear weapons designed specifically
to generate an enhanced-EMP effect, that they term "Super-EMP"
weapons. "Super-EMP" weapons, according to these foreign open source
writings, can destroy even the best protected U.S. military and
civilian electronic systems.[44]
Prior to the creation of the United States EMP Commission, a widely-
read article by engineer and defense analyst Carlo Kopp, first
published in 1996, stated that suitable materials and tools to create
basic non-nuclear electromagnetic weapons are commonly available. In
that article, Kopp said, "The threat of electromagnetic bomb
proliferation is very real."[32] Although Kopp's article mentions
nuclear EMP, the article was mostly about non-nuclear EMP weapons.

[edit] Clarification of common misconceptions
In non-technical writings about nuclear EMP, both in print and on the
Internet, some common misconceptions about EMP are nearly always
found. These widely-repeated misconceptions have led to a very
considerable amount of confusion about the subject. Here are some
further clarifications on common areas of confusion that have already
been discussed (with references) in the above sections of this
article:

Most nuclear weapons effects vary greatly depending upon the altitude
of the detonation. This is especially true of nuclear EMP. The
standard reference text on nuclear weapon effects published by the
U.S. Department of Defense discusses this relationship extensively in
the first two chapters, and provides mutually-exclusive definitions
for phrases such as "air burst" and "high-altitude burst." [45] As
explained in above sections of this article, nuclear detonations at
all altitudes within the Earth's magnetic field will produce an
electromagnetic pulse; but the magnitude of the EMP and area that is
affected by the EMP are strongly affected by many factors, and is
especially strongly dependent upon the altitude of the detonation.
(See the discussion above in the "Weapon altitude" and "Weapon
distance" sections.) A nuclear explosion in deep space and not in a
strong planetary magnetic field would be ineffective at generating
EMP.
EMP is not a new kind of weapon effect. As stated in the "History"
section above, nuclear EMP from a nuclear air burst has been known
since 1945. The unique characteristics of high-altitude nuclear EMP
have been known since at least 1962. Non-nuclear EMP has been known
since at least 1951. Electromagnetic pulse is a prompt secondary
effect of a nuclear explosion, and nearly all of the nuclear EMP is
produced outside of the weapon. (All nuclear weapons can produce EMP
as a secondary effect, but the effect can be enhanced by special
weapon design.)[20][44]
The E3 component of nuclear EMP that produces geomagnetically induced
currents in very long electrical conductors is roughly proportional to
the total energy yield of the weapon. The other components of nuclear
EMP are less likely to be dependent on total energy yield of the
weapon. The E1 component, in particular, is proportional to prompt
gamma ray output; but EMP levels can be strongly affected if more than
one burst of gamma rays occurs in a short time period. Large
thermonuclear weapons produce large energy yields through a multi-
stage process. This multi-stage process is completed within a small
fraction of a second, but it nevertheless requires a finite length of
time. The first fission reaction is usually of relatively small yield,
and the gamma rays produced by the first stage pre-ionize atmospheric
molecules in the stratosphere. This pre-ionization causes the gamma
ray emission from the high-energy final stage of the thermonuclear
weapon (a fraction of a second later) to be relatively ineffective at
producing a large E1 pulse.[29][30] (See the blue pre-ionization curve
in the "Peak Electric Field at Ground Zero" graph above.)
It has long been known that there are many ways to protect against
nuclear EMP (or to quickly begin repairs where protection is not
practical); but the United States EMP Commission determined that such
protections are almost completely absent in the civilian
infrastructure of the United States, and that even large sectors of
the United States military services were no longer protected against
EMP to the level that they were during the Cold War. The public
statements of the physicists and engineers working in the EMP field
tend to emphasize the importance of making electronic equipment and
electrical components resistant to EMP — and of keeping adequate spare
parts on hand, and in the proper location, to enable prompt repairs to
be made.[20][30][46] The United States EMP Commission did not look at
the civilian infrastructures of other nations.
[edit] See also
Electromagnetism portal
Explosively pumped flux compression generator
Electromagnetic environment
Electromagnetic weapon
Electronic warfare
Geomagnetic storm
Starfish Prime
The K Project
Electromagnetism
Pulsed power
Faraday's law of induction
Marx generator
One Second After
[edit] References
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2004
^ a b Statement, Dr. Peter Vincent Pry, EMP Commission Staff, before
the United States Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and
Homeland Security. March 8, 2005[21]
^ Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear
Weapons. Chapters 1 and 2. United States Department of Defense. 1977.
[22]
^ Ross, Lenard H., Jr. and Mihelic, F. Matthew, "Healthcare
Vulnerabilities to Electromagnetic Pulse," American Journal of
Disaster Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 321–325. November/December 2008.
[23]
This article incorporates public domain material from the General
Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support
of MIL-STD-188).
[edit] Further reading
ISBN 978-1592483891 21st Century Complete Guide to Electromagnetic
Pulse (EMP) Attack Threats, Report of the Commission to Assess the
Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic ... High-Altitude
Nuclear Weapon EMP Attacks (CD-ROM)
ISBN 978-0160561276 Threat posed by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to
U.S. military systems and civil infrastructure: Hearing before the
Military Research and Development Subcommittee ... first session,
hearing held July 16, 1997 (Unknown Binding)
ISBN 978-0471014034 Electromagnetic Pulse Radiation and Protective
Techniques
ISBN 978-0-16-080927-9 Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat
to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack
[edit] External links
GlobalSecurity.org – Electromagnetic Pulse: From chaos to a manageable
solution
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and Tempest Protection for Facilities –
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EMP data from Starfish nuclear test measured by Richard Wakefield of
LANL, and review of evidence pertaining to the effects 1,300 km away
in Hawaii, also review of Russian EMP tests of 1962
Ray, James F. (2008). FULL THREAT. Baltimore: Publish America. ISBN
1-60563-790-4.
Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding HEMP
MIL-STD-188-125-1
Electromagnetic Pulse Risks & Terrorism
How E-Bombs Work
Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding HEMP
Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse"
Categories: Electromagnetic radiation | Energy weapons | Nuclear
weapons | Electromagnetic compatibility | Bombs | Electronic warfare
Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the
Federal Standard 1037C | Wikipedia articles incorporating text from
MIL-STD-188ViewsArticle Discussion Edit this page History Personal
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Post by dennyreno
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Wikipedia  Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared treasure. Help us
protect it. [Show]Wikipedia  Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared
treasure. Help us protect it. Arthur C. Clarke
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sir Arthur C. Clarke, CBE
Arthur C. Clarke at his home office in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 March
2005
Born 16 December 1917(1917-12-16)
Minehead, Somerset, England, United Kingdom
Died 19 March 2008 (aged 90)
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Pen name Charles Willis,[1]
E.G. O'Brien[1]
Occupation Author, Inventor
Nationality British and
Sri Lankan
Genres Hard science fiction
Popular science
Subjects Science
Notable work(s) Childhood's End
2001: A Space Odyssey
Rendezvous with Rama
The Fountains of Paradise
Spouse(s) Marilyn Mayfield (1953-1964)
Influences[show]
H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Lord Dunsany, Olaf Stapledon
Influenced[show]
Stephen Baxter
Official website
Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS (16 December
1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction author, inventor,
and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written
in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which
also produced the film of the same name; and as a host and commentator
in the British television series Mysterious World.[2][3]
Clarke served in the Royal Air Force as a radar instructor and
technician from 1941-1946, proposed satellite communication systems in
1945[4][5] which won him the Franklin Institute Stuart Ballantine Gold
Medal in 1963. He was the chairman of the British Interplanetary
Society from 1947-1950 and again in 1953.[6] Later, he helped fight
for the preservation of lowland gorillas.[7][8]
Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka in 1956 largely to pursue his interest
in scuba diving,[9] and lived there until his death. He was knighted
by the British monarchy in 1998,[10][11] and was awarded Sri Lanka's
highest civil honour, Sri Lankabhimanya, in 2005.[12]
Contents [hide]
1 Biography
1.1 Writing career
1.2 Later years
2 Position on religion
3 Views on paranormal phenomena
4 Themes, style, and influences
5 Adapted screenplays
5.1 2001: A Space Odyssey
5.2 2010
5.3 Rendezvous with Rama
6 Beyond 2001
7 Essays and short stories
8 Concept of the geostationary communications satellite
9 Awards, honours and other recognition
10 Partial bibliography
10.1 Select Novels
10.2 Short story collections
10.3 Non-fiction
11 See also
12 Cited references
13 External links
[edit] Biography
Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England.[13] As a boy he
enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp
magazines. After secondary school and studying at Huish's Grammar
School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and
got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of
Education.[14]
During the Second World War he served in the Royal Air Force as a
radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence
system, which contributed to the RAF's success during the Battle of
Britain. Clarke spent most of his wartime service working on Ground
Controlled Approach (GCA) radar as documented in the semi-
autobiographical Glide Path, his only non-science-fiction novel.
Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, it proved
vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 after several years of
development. Clarke initially served in the ranks, and was a Corporal
instructor on radar at No 9 Radio School, RAF Yatesbury. He was
commissioned as a Pilot Officer (Technical Branch) on 27 May 1943.[15]
He was promoted Flying Officer on 27 November 1943.[16] He was
appointed chief training instructor at RAF Honiley and was demobilised
with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war he earned a first-
class degree in mathematics and physics at King's College London.
In the postwar years, Clarke became the Chairman of the British
Interplanetary Society from 1946-1947 [17] and again from 1951-1953
[18]. Although he was not the originator of the concept of
geostationary satellites, one of his most important contributions may
be his idea that they would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
advanced this idea in a paper privately circulated among the core
technical members of the BIS in 1945. The concept was published in
a number of non-fiction books describing the technical details and
societal implications of rocketry and space flight. The most notable
of these may be The Exploration of Space (1951) and The Promise of
Space (1968). In recognition of these contributions the geostationary
orbit 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) above the equator is officially
recognized by the International Astronomical Union as a Clarke Orbit.
[22]
On a trip to Florida in 1953[23] Clarke met and quickly married
Marilyn Mayfield, a 22-year-old American divorcee with a young son.
They separated permanently after six months, although the divorce was
not finalised until 1964.[24] "The marriage was incompatible from the
beginning", says Clarke.[24] Clarke never remarried but was close to
Leslie Ekanayake, who died in 1977. In his biography of Stanley
Kubrick, John Baxter cites Clarke's homosexuality as a reason why
Clarke relocated, due to more tolerant laws in regards to
homosexuality in Sri Lanka.[25] Journalists who inquired of Clarke
whether he was gay were told, "No, merely mildly cheerful."[26]
However, Michael Moorcock has written
Everyone knew he was gay. In the 1950s I'd go out drinking with his
boyfriend. We met his proteges, western and eastern, and their
families: people who had only the most generous praise for his
kindness. Self-absorbed he might be, and a teetotaller, but an
impeccable gent through and through.[27]
Moorcook's assertion is not supported by other reports, although in an
interview in the July 1986 issue of Playboy magazine,[28] Clarke
stated "Of course. Who hasn't?" when asked if he has had bisexual
experiences.[29]
Clarke also maintained a vast collection of manuscripts and personal
memoirs, maintained by his brother Fred Clarke in Taunton, Somerset,
England, and referred to as the "Clarkives." Clarke has said that some
of his private diaries will not be published until 30 years after his
death. When asked why they were sealed up, he answered "'Well, there
might be all sorts of embarrassing things in them".[30]
[edit] Writing career
While Clarke had a few stories published in fanzines, between 1937 and
1945, his first professional sales appeared in Astounding Science
Fiction in 1946: "Loophole" was published in April, while "Rescue
Party", his first sale, was published in May. Along with his writing
Clarke briefly worked as Assistant Editor of Science Abstracts (1949)
before devoting himself to writing full-time from 1951 onward. Clarke
also contributed to the Dan Dare series published in Eagle, and his
first three published novels were written for children.
Clarke corresponded with C. S. Lewis in the 1940s and 1950s and they
once met in an Oxford pub, The Eastgate, to discuss science fiction
and space travel. Clarke, after Lewis's death, voiced great praise for
him, saying the Ransom Trilogy was one of the few works of science
fiction that could be considered literature.
In 1948 he wrote "The Sentinel" for a BBC competition. Though the
story was rejected it changed the course of Clarke's career. Not only
was it the basis for A Space Odyssey, but "The Sentinel" also
introduced a more mystical and cosmic element to Clarke's work. Many
of Clarke's later works feature a technologically advanced but still-
prejudiced mankind being confronted by a superior alien intelligence.
In the cases of The City and the Stars (and its original version,
Against the Fall of Night), Childhood's End, and the 2001 series, this
encounter produces a conceptual breakthrough that accelerates humanity
into the next stage of its evolution. In Clarke's authorized
biography, Neil McAleer writes that: "many readers and critics still
consider [Childhood's End] Arthur C. Clarke's best novel."[24]
Clarke lived in Sri Lanka from 1956 until his death in 2008, having
emigrated there when it was still called Ceylon, first in Unawatuna on
the south coast, and then in Colombo.[26] Clarke held citizenship of
both the UK and Sri Lanka.[31] He was an avid scuba diver and a member
of the Underwater Explorers Club. Living in Sri Lanka afforded him the
opportunity to visit the ocean year-round. It also inspired the locale
for his novel The Fountains of Paradise in which he described a space
elevator. This, he believed, ultimately will be his legacy, more so
than geostationary satellites, once space elevators make rocket based
access to space obsolete.[32]
His many predictions culminated in 1958 when he began a series of
essays in various magazines that eventually became Profiles of the
Future published in book form in 1962. A timetable[33] up to the year
2100 describes inventions and ideas including such things as a "global
library" for 2005.
[edit] Later years
In the early 1970s Clarke signed a three-book publishing deal, a
record for a science-fiction writer at the time. The first of the
three was Rendezvous with Rama in 1973, which won him all the main
genre awards and has spawned sequels that, along with the 2001 series,
formed the backbone of his later career.
In 1975 Clarke's short story "The Star" was not included in a new high
school English textbook in Sri Lanka because of concerns that it might
offend Roman Catholics even though it had already been selected. The
same textbook also caused controversy because it replaced
Shakespeare's work with that of Bob Dylan, John Lennon and Isaac
Asimov.
In the 1980s Clarke became well known to many for his television
programmes Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World, Arthur C. Clarke's
World of Strange Powers and Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious Universe. In ...
read more »
dennyreno
2009-12-26 13:28:28 UTC
Permalink
4-19 In Search Of... Earth Visitors (Part 3 of 3)

Post by dennyreno
We're almost there. Thank you. $5.9M$7.5M USDDonate Now[Hide][Show]
Wikipedia  Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared treasure. Help us
protect it. [Show]Wikipedia  Forever Our shared knowledge. Our shared
treasure. Help us protect it. Arthur C. Clarke
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sir Arthur C. Clarke, CBE
Arthur C. Clarke at his home office in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 March
2005
Born 16 December 1917(1917-12-16)
Minehead, Somerset, England, United Kingdom
Died 19 March 2008 (aged 90)
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Pen name Charles Willis,[1]
E.G. O'Brien[1]
Occupation Author, Inventor
Nationality British and
Sri Lankan
Genres Hard science fiction
Popular science
Subjects Science
Notable work(s) Childhood's End
2001: A Space Odyssey
Rendezvous with Rama
The Fountains of Paradise
Spouse(s) Marilyn Mayfield (1953-1964)
Influences[show]
H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Lord Dunsany, Olaf Stapledon
Influenced[show]
Stephen Baxter
Official website
Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS (16 December
1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction author, inventor,
and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written
in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which
also produced the film of the same name; and as a host and commentator
in the British television series Mysterious World.[2][3]
Clarke served in the Royal Air Force as a radar instructor and
technician from 1941-1946, proposed satellite communication systems in
1945[4][5] which won him the Franklin Institute Stuart Ballantine Gold
Medal in 1963. He was the chairman of the British Interplanetary
Society from 1947-1950 and again in 1953.[6] Later, he helped fight
for the preservation of lowland gorillas.[7][8]
Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka in 1956 largely to pursue his interest
in scuba diving,[9] and lived there until his death. He was knighted
by the British monarchy in 1998,[10][11] and was awarded Sri Lanka's
highest civil honour, Sri Lankabhimanya, in 2005.[12]
Contents [hide]
1 Biography
1.1 Writing career
1.2 Later years
2 Position on religion
3 Views on paranormal phenomena
4 Themes, style, and influences
5 Adapted screenplays
5.1 2001: A Space Odyssey
5.2 2010
5.3 Rendezvous with Rama
6 Beyond 2001
7 Essays and short stories
8 Concept of the geostationary communications satellite
9 Awards, honours and other recognition
10 Partial bibliography
10.1 Select Novels
10.2 Short story collections
10.3 Non-fiction
11 See also
12 Cited references
13 External links
[edit] Biography
Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England.[13] As a boy he
enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp
magazines. After secondary school and studying at Huish's Grammar
School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and
got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of
Education.[14]
During the Second World War he served in the Royal Air Force as a
radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence
system, which contributed to the RAF's success during the Battle of
Britain. Clarke spent most of his wartime service working on Ground
Controlled Approach (GCA) radar as documented in the semi-
autobiographical Glide Path, his only non-science-fiction novel.
Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, it proved
vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 after several years of
development. Clarke initially served in the ranks, and was a Corporal
instructor on radar at No 9 Radio School, RAF Yatesbury. He was
commissioned as a Pilot Officer (Technical Branch) on 27 May 1943.[15]
He was promoted Flying Officer on 27 November 1943.[16] He was
appointed chief training instructor at RAF Honiley and was demobilised
with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war he earned a first-
class degree in mathematics and physics at King's College London.
In the postwar years, Clarke became the Chairman of the British
Interplanetary Society from 1946-1947 [17] and again from 1951-1953
[18]. Although he was not the originator of the concept of
geostationary satellites, one of his most important contributions may
be his idea that they would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
advanced this idea in a paper privately circulated among the core
technical members of the BIS in 1945. The concept was published in
a number of non-fiction books describing the technical details and
societal implications of rocketry and space flight. The most notable
of these may be The Exploration of Space (1951) and The Promise of
Space (1968). In recognition of these contributions the geostationary
orbit 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) above the equator is officially
recognized by the International Astronomical Union as a Clarke Orbit.
[22]
On a trip to Florida in 1953[23] Clarke met and quickly married
Marilyn Mayfield, a 22-year-old American divorcee with a young son.
They separated permanently after six months, although the divorce was
not finalised until 1964.[24] "The marriage was incompatible from the
beginning", says Clarke.[24] Clarke never remarried but was close to
Leslie Ekanayake, who died in 1977. In his biography of Stanley
Kubrick, John Baxter cites Clarke's homosexuality as a reason why
Clarke relocated, due to more tolerant laws in regards to
homosexuality in Sri Lanka.[25] Journalists who inquired of Clarke
whether he was gay were told, "No, merely mildly cheerful."[26]
However, Michael Moorcock has written
Everyone knew he was gay. In the 1950s I'd go out drinking with his
boyfriend. We met his proteges, western and eastern, and their
families: people who had only the most generous praise for his
kindness. Self-absorbed he might be, and a teetotaller, but an
impeccable gent through and through.[27]
Moorcook's assertion is not supported by other reports, although in an
interview in the July 1986 issue of Playboy magazine,[28] Clarke
stated "Of course. Who hasn't?" when asked if he has had bisexual
experiences.[29]
Clarke also maintained a vast collection of manuscripts and personal
memoirs, maintained by his brother Fred Clarke in Taunton, Somerset,
England, and referred to as the "Clarkives." Clarke has said that some
of his private diaries will not be published until 30 years after his
death. When asked why they were sealed up, he answered "'Well, there
might be all sorts of embarrassing things in them".[30]
[edit] Writing career
While Clarke had a few stories published in fanzines, between 1937 and
1945, his first professional sales appeared in Astounding Science
Fiction in 1946: "Loophole" was published in April, while "Rescue
Party", his first sale, was published in May. Along with his writing
Clarke briefly worked as Assistant Editor of Science Abstracts (1949)
before devoting himself to writing full-time from 1951 onward. Clarke
also contributed to the Dan Dare series published in Eagle, and his
first three published novels were written for children.
Clarke corresponded with C. S. Lewis in the 1940s and 1950s and they
once met in an Oxford pub, The Eastgate, to discuss science fiction
and space travel. Clarke, after Lewis's death, voiced great praise for
him, saying the Ransom Trilogy was one of the few works of science
fiction that could be considered literature.
In 1948 he wrote "The Sentinel" for a BBC competition. Though the
story was rejected it changed the course of Clarke's career. Not only
was it the basis for A Space Odyssey, but "The Sentinel" also
introduced a more mystical and cosmic element to Clarke's work. Many
of Clarke's later works feature a technologically advanced but still-
prejudiced mankind being confronted by a superior alien intelligence.
In the cases of The City and the Stars (and its original version,
Against the Fall of Night), Childhood's End, and the 2001 series, this
encounter produces a conceptual breakthrough that accelerates humanity
into the next stage of its evolution. In Clarke's authorized
biography, Neil McAleer writes that: "many readers and critics still
consider [Childhood's End] Arthur C. Clarke's best novel."[24]
Clarke lived in Sri Lanka from 1956 until his death in 2008, having
emigrated there when it was still called Ceylon, first in Unawatuna on
the south coast, and then in Colombo.[26] Clarke held citizenship of
both the UK and Sri Lanka.[31] He was an avid scuba diver and a member
of the Underwater Explorers Club. Living in Sri Lanka afforded him the
opportunity to visit the ocean year-round. It also inspired the locale
for his novel The Fountains of Paradise in which he described a space
elevator. This, he believed, ultimately will be his legacy, more so
than geostationary satellites, once space elevators make rocket based
access to space obsolete.[32]
His many predictions culminated in 1958 when he began a series of
essays in various magazines that eventually became Profiles of the
Future published in book form in 1962. A timetable[33] up to the year
2100 describes inventions and ideas including such things as a "global
library" for 2005.
[edit] Later years
In the early 1970s Clarke signed a three-book publishing deal, a
record for a science-fiction writer at the time. The first of the
three was Rendezvous with Rama in 1973, which won him all the main
genre awards and has spawned sequels that, along with the 2001 series,
formed the backbone of his later career.
In 1975 Clarke's short story "The Star" was not included in a new high
school English textbook in Sri Lanka because of concerns that it might
offend Roman Catholics even though it had already been selected. The
same textbook also caused controversy because it replaced
Shakespeare's work with that of Bob Dylan, John Lennon and Isaac
Asimov.
In the 1980s Clarke became well known to many for his television
programmes Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World, Arthur C. Clarke's
World of Strange Powers and Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious Universe. In ...
read more »
dennyreno
2009-12-26 18:58:37 UTC
Permalink
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan

Carl Sagan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Carl Sagan


Born November 9, 1934(1934-11-09)
Brooklyn, New York
Died December 20, 1996 (aged 62)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.

Residence United States[1]
Nationality American
Fields Astronomy and planetary science
Institutions Cornell University
Harvard University
Alma mater University of Chicago
Known for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
Cosmos
Voyager Golden Record
Pioneer plaque
Contact
Pale Blue Dot
Notable awards Oersted Medal (1990)
NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (twice)
Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction (1978)
National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal (1994)
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an
American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful
popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He
pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial
Intelligence (SETI).

He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-
writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which has been seen by more than 500
million people in over 60 countries.[2] A book to accompany the
program was also published. He also wrote the novel Contact, the basis
for the 1997 film of the same name. During his lifetime, Sagan
published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was
author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he
frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the
scientific method.

Contents [hide]
1 Early life and education
2 Career in science
3 Science advocacy
3.1 Billions and billions
3.2 SETI
3.3 UFO skepticism
4 Religious stance and social concerns
4.1 Nuclear weapons
5 Death and legacy
6 Awards and honors
7 Personal life
8 Publications
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links
11.1 Dated


[edit] Early life and education
Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn, New York,[3] to a Russian Jewish
family. His father, Sam Sagan, was a Russian immigrant garment worker;
his mother, Rachel Molly Gruber, a housewife. Carl was named in honor
of Rachel's biological mother, Chaiya Clara, "the mother she never
knew", in Sagan's words. Sagan graduated from Rahway High School in
Rahway, New Jersey in 1951.[4] He attended the University of Chicago,
where he participated in the Ryerson Astronomical Society,[5] received
a B.A. with general and special honors (1954), a B.S. (1955) and a
M.S. (1956) in physics, before earning a Ph.D. degree (1960) in
astronomy and astrophysics.[6] During his time as an undergraduate,
Sagan spent some time working in the laboratory of the geneticist H.
J. Muller. From 1960 to 1962 he was a Miller Fellow at the University
of California, Berkeley.

[edit] Career in science
From 1962 to 1968, Sagan worked at the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sagan lectured and did
research annually at Harvard University until 1968, when he moved to
Cornell University in New York. He became a full Professor at Cornell
in 1971, and he directed the Laboratory for Planetary Studies there.
From 1972 to 1981, Sagan was the Associate Director of the Center for
Radio Physics and Space Research at Cornell.

Sagan was a scientist connected with the American space program since
its inception. From the 1950s onward, he worked as an adviser to NASA.
One of his many duties during his tenure at the space agency included
briefing the Apollo astronauts before their flights to the Moon. Sagan
contributed to many of the robotic spacecraft missions that explored
the solar system during his lifetime, arranging experiments on many of
the expeditions. He conceived the idea of adding an unalterable and
universal message on spacecraft destined to leave the solar system
that could potentially be understood by any extraterrestrial
intelligence that might find it. Sagan assembled the first physical
message that was sent into space: a gold-anodized plaque, attached to
the space probe Pioneer 10, launched in 1972. Pioneer 11, also
carrying another copy of the plaque, was launched the following year.
He continued to refine his designs throughout his lifetime; the most
elaborate message he helped to develop and assemble was the Voyager
Golden Record that was sent out with the Voyager space probes in 1977.
Sagan often challenged the decisions to fund the Space Shuttle and
Space Station at the expense of further robotic missions.[7]

At Cornell University, Sagan taught a course on critical thinking
until his death in 1996 from a rare bone marrow disease. The course
had only a limited number of seats. Although hundreds of students
applied each year, only about 20 were chosen to attend each semester.
The course was discontinued immediately after Sagan's death, but it
was resumed by Dr. Yervant Terzian in 2000.

Sagan's contributions were central to the discovery of the high
surface temperatures of the planet Venus. In the early 1960s no one
knew for certain the basic conditions of that planet's surface, and
Sagan listed the possibilities in a report later depicted for
popularization in a Time-Life book, Planets. His own view was that
Venus was dry and very hot as opposed to the balmy paradise others had
imagined. He had investigated radio emissions from Venus and concluded
that there was a surface temperature of 500 °C (900 °F). As a visiting
scientist to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, he contributed to the
first Mariner missions to Venus, working on the design and management
of the project. Mariner 2 confirmed his conclusions on the surface
conditions of Venus in 1962.

Sagan was among the first to hypothesize that Saturn's moon Titan
might possess oceans of liquid compounds on its surface and that
Jupiter's moon Europa might possess subsurface oceans of water. This
would make Europa potentially habitable for life.[8] Europa's
subsurface ocean of water was later indirectly confirmed by the
spacecraft Galileo. Sagan also helped solve the mystery of the reddish
haze seen on Titan, revealing that it is composed of complex organic
molecules constantly raining down onto the moon's surface.

He further contributed insights regarding the atmospheres of Venus and
Jupiter as well as seasonal changes on Mars. Sagan established that
the atmosphere of Venus is extremely hot and dense with pressures
increasing steadily all the way down to the surface. He also perceived
global warming as a growing, man-made danger and likened it to the
natural development of Venus into a hot, life-hostile planet through a
kind of runaway greenhouse effect. Sagan and his Cornell colleague
Edwin Ernest Salpeter speculated about life in Jupiter's clouds, given
the planet's dense atmospheric composition rich in organic molecules.
He studied the observed color variations on Mars’ surface and
concluded that they were not seasonal or vegetational changes as most
believed but shifts in surface dust caused by windstorms.

He is also the 1994 recipient of the Public Welfare Medal, the highest
award of the National Academy of Sciences for "distinguished
contributions in the application of science to the public welfare."[9]

[edit] Science advocacy

Planetary Society members at the organization's founding. Carl Sagan
is seated on the right.Sagan's ability to convey his ideas allowed
many people to better understand the cosmos—simultaneously emphasizing
the value and worthiness of the human race, and the relative
insignificance of the earth in comparison to the universe. He
delivered the 1977 series of Royal Institution Christmas Lectures at
the Royal Institution in London. He hosted and, with Ann Druyan, co-
wrote and co-produced the highly popular thirteen-part PBS television
series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage modeled on Jacob Bronowski's The
Ascent of Man.

Cosmos covered a wide range of scientific subjects including the
origin of life and a perspective of our place in the universe. The
series was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980,
winning an Emmy and a Peabody Award. It has been broadcast in more
than 60 countries and seen by over 500 million people,[2][10] making
it the most widely watched PBS program in history.[11]

Sagan also wrote books to popularize science, such as Cosmos, which
reflected and expanded upon some of the themes of A Personal Voyage,
and became the best-selling science book ever published in English;
[12] The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human
Intelligence, which won a Pulitzer Prize; and Broca's Brain:
Reflections on the Romance of Science. Sagan also wrote the best-
selling science fiction novel Contact, but did not live to see the
book's 1997 motion picture adaptation, which starred Jodie Foster and
won the 1998 Hugo Award.


Pale Blue Dot: Earth is a bright pixel when photographed from "Voyager
1" six billion kilometres out (past Pluto). Sagan encouraged NASA to
generate this image.He wrote a sequel to Cosmos, Pale Blue Dot: A
Vision of the Human Future in Space, which was selected as a notable
book of 1995 by The New York Times. He appeared on PBS' Charlie Rose
program in January 1995.[13] Sagan also wrote an introduction for the
bestselling book by Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time. Sagan
was also known for his popularization of science, his efforts to
increase scientific understanding among the general public, and his
positions in favor of scientific skepticism and against pseudoscience,
such as his debunking of the Betty and Barney Hill abduction. To mark
the tenth anniversary of Sagan's passing, David Morrison, a former
student of Sagan, recalled "Sagan's immense contributions to planetary
research, the public understanding of science, and the skeptical
movement" in Skeptical Inquirer.[14]

Sagan erroneously predicted in January 1991 that so much smoke from
the Kuwaiti oil fires "might get so high as to disrupt agriculture in
much of South Asia…" He acknowledged the error in The Demon-Haunted
World: "as events transpired, it was pitch black at noon and
temperatures dropped 4–6 °C over the Persian Gulf, but not much smoke
reached stratospheric altitudes and Asia was spared."[15]

In his later years Sagan advocated the creation of an organized search
for near Earth objects that might impact the Earth.[16] When others
suggested creating large nuclear bombs that could be used to alter the
orbit of a NEO that was predicted to hit the Earth, Sagan proposed the
Deflection Dilemma: If we create the ability to deflect an asteroid
away from the Earth, then we also create the ability to deflect an
asteroid towards the Earth—providing an evil power with a true
doomsday bomb.[17][18]

[edit] Billions and billions

Sagan with a model of the Viking Lander probes which would land on
Mars. Sagan examined possible landing sites for Viking along with Mike
Carr and Hal Masursky.From Cosmos and his frequent appearances on The
Tonight Show, Sagan became associated with the catch phrase "billions
and billions". As Sagan himself stated, he never actually used the
phrase in the Cosmos series.[19] The closest that he ever came was in
the book Cosmos, where he talked of "billions upon billions":[20]

A galaxy is composed of gas and dust and stars — billions upon
billions of stars.

—Carl Sagan, Cosmos, chapter 1, page 3[21]

However, his frequent use of the word billions, and distinctive
delivery emphasizing the "b" (which he did intentionally, in place of
more cumbersome alternatives such as "billions with a 'b'", in order
to distinguish the word from "millions" in viewers' minds[19]), made
him a favorite target of comic performers including Johnny Carson,
Gary Kroeger, Mike Myers,[22] Bronson Pinchot, Penn Jillette Harry
Shearer, and others. Frank Zappa satirized the line in the song Be In
My Video, noting as well 'atomic light.' Sagan took this all in good
humor, and his final book was entitled Billions and Billions which
opened with a tongue-in-cheek discussion of this catch phrase,
observing that Carson himself was an amateur astronomer and that
Carson's comic caricature often included real science.[19]

As a humorous tribute to him, a Sagan has been defined as a humorous
unit of measurement equal to at least four billion, since the lower
bound of a number conforming to the constraint of billions and
billions must be two billion plus two billion.[23][24] Assuming one
uses the short scale definition for billion, there are nearly 100
Sagan (400,000,000,000) stars in the Milky Way galaxy.

In 1994, Apple Computer began developing the Power Macintosh 7100.
They chose the internal code name "Carl Sagan", the reference being
that the mid-range PowerMac 7100 should make Apple "billions and
billions."[3] Though the internal project name was never used in
public marketing, it did come up in Usenet postings and news of the
name grew from there. When Sagan learned of this he sued Apple
Computer to force the use of a different project name. Other models
released conjointly had code names such as "Cold fusion" and "Piltdown
Man", and Sagan was displeased at being associated with what he
considered pseudoscience. (He was at the time writing a book
discrediting pseudoscience.) Though Sagan lost the lawsuit Apple
engineers complied with his demands anyway and renamed the project
"BHA" (for Butt-Head Astronomer). Sagan promptly sued Apple for libel
over the new name, claiming that it subjected him to contempt and
ridicule, but he lost this lawsuit as well. Still, the 7100 saw
another name change: it was finally referred to internally as
"LAW" (Lawyers Are Wimps).[25][26]

Whilst Sagan was outspoken about political issues, the popular
perception of his characterization of large cosmic quantities
continued to be a sense of wonderment at the vastness of space and
time as in his phrase "The total number of stars in the Universe is
larger than all the grains of sand on all the beaches of the planet
Earth", however this famous saying was widely misunderstood, as he was
in fact referring, in his Cosmos series, to the world being at a
"critical branch point in history where our actions will propagate
down through the centuries" as in the following quote from Cosmos: A
personal Voyage: Episode 8: Journeys in Space and Time:

Those worlds in space are as countless as all the grains of sand on
all the beaches of the earth. Each of those worlds is as real as ours
and every one of them is a succession of incidents, events,
occurrences which influence its future. Countless worlds, numberless
moments, an immensity of space and time. And our small planet at this
moment, here we face a critical branch point in history, what we do
with our world, right now, will propagate down through the centuries
and powerfully affect the destiny of our descendants, it is well
within our power to destroy our civilization and perhaps our species
as well.
[edit] SETI
Sagan was well known for his research on the possibilities of
extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the
production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation.[27] Sagan
was a proponent of the search for extraterrestrial life. He urged the
scientific community to listen with radio telescopes for signals from
intelligent extraterrestrial life-forms. So persuasive was he that by
1982 he was able to get a petition advocating SETI published in the
journal Science and signed by 70 scientists including seven Nobel
Prize winners. This was a tremendous turnaround in the respectability
of this controversial field. Sagan also helped Dr. Frank Drake write
the Arecibo message, a radio message beamed into space from the
Arecibo radio telescope on November 16, 1974, aimed at informing
extraterrestrials about Earth.

Sagan was chief technology officer of the professional planetary
research journal Icarus for twelve years. He co-founded the Planetary
Society, the largest space-interest group in the world, with over
100,000 members in more than 149 countries, and was a member of the
SETI Institute Board of Trustees. Sagan served as Chairman of the
Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society,
as President of the Planetology Section of the American Geophysical
Union, and as Chairman of the Astronomy Section of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science.

Sagan believed that the Drake equation, on substitution of reasonable
estimates, suggested that a large number of extraterrestrial
civilizations would form, but that the lack of evidence of such
civilizations highlighted by the Fermi paradox suggests technological
civilizations tend to destroy themselves rather quickly. This
stimulated his interest in identifying and publicizing ways that
humanity could destroy itself, with the hope of avoiding such a
cataclysm and eventually becoming a spacefaring species.

In 1966, Sagan was asked to contribute an interview about the
possibility of extraterrestrials to a proposed introduction to the
film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Sagan reportedly asked for control and a
percentage of the film's box office receipts in return; these terms
were rejected.[28]

[edit] UFO skepticism
Sagan was skeptical of reports of UFOs. He thought scientists and
investigators should examine them to address the widespread public
interest in UFO reports. In 1964, he had several conversations on the
subject with Jacques Vallee.[29]

Stuart Appelle notes that Sagan "wrote frequently on what he perceived
as the logical and empirical fallacies regarding UFOs and the
abduction experience. Sagan rejected an extraterrestrial explanation
for the phenomenon but felt there were both empirical and pedagogical
benefits for examining UFO reports and that the subject was,
therefore, a legitimate topic of study."[30]

In 1966, Sagan was a member of the Ad Hoc Committee to Review Project
Blue Book, the U.S. Air Force's UFO investigation project. The
committee concluded Blue Book had been lacking as a scientific study,
and recommended a university-based project to give the UFO phenomenon
closer scientific scrutiny. The result was the Condon Committee (1966–
1968), led by physicist Edward Condon, and in their final report they
formally concluded that UFOs, regardless of what any of them actually
were, did not behave in a manner consistent with a threat to national
security.

Ron Westrum writes that "The high point of Sagan's treatment of the
UFO question was the AAAS's symposium in 1969. A wide range of
educated opinions on the subject were offered by participants,
including not only proponents such as James McDonald and J. Allen
Hynek but also skeptics like astronomers William Hartmann and Donald
Menzel. The roster of speakers was balanced, and it is to Sagan's
credit that this event was presented in spite of pressure from Edward
Condon".[29] With physicist Thornton Page, Sagan edited the lectures
and discussions given at the symposium; these were published in 1972
as UFOs: A Scientific Debate. Some of Sagan's many books examine UFOs
(as did one episode of Cosmos) and he claimed a religious undercurrent
to the phenomenon.

Sagan again revealed his views on interstellar travel in his 1980
Cosmos series. In one of his last written works, Sagan argued that the
chances of extraterrestrial spacecraft visiting Earth are vanishingly
small. However, Sagan did think it plausible that Cold War concerns
contributed to governments misleading their citizens about UFOs, and
that "some UFO reports and analyses, and perhaps voluminous files,
have been made inaccessible to the public which pays the bills ...
It's time for the files to be declassified and made generally
available." He cautioned against jumping to conclusions about
suppressed UFO data and stressed that there was no strong evidence
that aliens were visiting the Earth either in the past or present.[31]

[edit] Religious stance and social concerns
Sagan wrote frequently about religion and the relationship between
religion and science, expressing his skepticism about the conventional
conceptualization of God as a sapient being. For example:

Some people think God is an outsized, light-skinned male with a long
white beard, sitting on a throne somewhere up there in the sky, busily
tallying the fall of every sparrow. Others—for example Baruch Spinoza
and Albert Einstein—considered God to be essentially the sum total of
the physical laws which describe the universe. I do not know of any
compelling evidence for anthropomorphic patriarchs controlling human
destiny from some hidden celestial vantage point, but it would be
madness to deny the existence of physical laws.[32]

Sagan, however, denied that he was an atheist: "An atheist has to know
a lot more than I know."[33] In reply to a question in 1996 about his
religious beliefs, Sagan answered, "I'm agnostic."[34] Sagan
maintained that the idea of a creator of the universe was difficult to
prove or disprove and that the only conceivable scientific discovery
that could challenge it would be an infinitely old universe.[35]

In 2006, Ann Druyan edited Sagan's 1985 Glasgow Gifford Lectures in
Natural Theology into a book, The Varieties of Scientific Experience:
A Personal View of the Search for God, in which he elaborates on his
views of divinity in the natural world.

Sagan is also widely regarded as a freethinker or skeptic; one of his
most famous quotations, in Cosmos, was, "Extraordinary claims require
extraordinary evidence."[36] This was based on a nearly identical
statement by fellow founder of the Committee for the Scientific
Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal founder Marcello Truzzi,
"Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof."[37] This idea
originated with Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827), a French
mathematician and astronomer who said, "The weight of evidence for an
extraordinary claim must be proportioned to its strangeness."[38]
Sagan nominated three areas within paranormal research that he
considered to have sufficient experimental support, albeit dubious, to
warrant serious study. These related to thoughts barely affecting
random number generators (psychokinesis); projection of images from
one person to another (telepathy); and young children sometimes
reporting verifiable details of previous lives (reincarnation
research). He was at pains to point out that he was not convinced by
the validity of these contentions, merely that they might be true.[39]

Late in his life, Sagan's books elaborated on his skeptical,
naturalistic view of the world. In The Demon-Haunted World: Science as
a Candle in the Dark, he presented tools for testing arguments and
detecting fallacious or fraudulent ones, essentially advocating wide
use of critical thinking and the scientific method. The compilation,
Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the
Millennium, published in 1997 after Sagan's death, contains essays
written by Sagan, such as his views on abortion, and his widow Ann
Druyan's account of his death as a skeptic, agnostic, and freethinker.

Sagan warned against humans' tendency for anthropocentrism. He was the
faculty adviser for the Cornell Students for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals. In the Cosmos chapter "Blues For a Red Planet", Sagan wrote,
"If there is life on Mars, I believe we should do nothing with Mars.
Mars then belongs to the Martians, even if the Martians are only
microbes."[40]

Sagan was a user of marijuana. Under the pseudonym "Mr. X", he
contributed an essay about smoking cannabis to the 1971 book Marihuana
Reconsidered.[41][42] The essay explained that marijuana use had
helped to inspire some of Sagan's works and enhance sensual and
intellectual experiences. After Sagan's death, his friend Lester
Grinspoon disclosed this information to Sagan's biographer, Keay
Davidson. The publishing of the biography, Carl Sagan: A Life, in 1999
brought media to this aspect of Sagan's life.[43][44][45]Isaac Asimov
described Sagan as one of only two people he ever met whose intellect
surpassed his own. The other, he claimed, was the computer scientist
and artificial intelligence expert Marvin Minsky.[46]

[edit] Nuclear weapons
Sagan's deep concern regarding the potential destruction of human
civilization in a nuclear holocaust was conveyed in a memorable
cinematic sequence in the final episode of Cosmos, called "Who Speaks
for Earth?" Following his marriage to his third wife (novelist Ann
Druyan) in June 1981, Sagan became more politically active—
particularly in opposing escalation of the nuclear arms race under
President Ronald Reagan.

At the height of the Cold War, Sagan became involved in public
awareness efforts for the effects of nuclear war when a mathematical
climate model suggested that a substantial nuclear exchange could
upset the delicate balance of life on Earth. He was one of five authors
—the "S" of the "TTAPS" report as the research paper came to be known.
He eventually co-authored the scientific paper hypothesizing a global
nuclear winter following nuclear war.[47] He also co-authored the book
A Path Where No Man Thought: Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms
Race, a comprehensive examination of the phenomenon of nuclear winter.

In March 1983, Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative—a
multi-billion dollar project to develop a comprehensive defense
against attack by nuclear missiles, which was quickly dubbed the "Star
Wars" program. Sagan spoke out against the project, arguing that it
was technically impossible to develop a system with the level of
perfection required, and far more expensive to build than for an enemy
to defeat through decoys and other means—and that its construction
would seriously destabilize the nuclear balance between the United
States and the Soviet Union, making further progress toward nuclear
disarmament impossible.

When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev declared a unilateral moratorium
on the testing of nuclear weapons, which would begin on August 6, 1985—
the 40th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima—the Reagan
administration dismissed the dramatic move as nothing more than
propaganda, and refused to follow suit. In response, American anti-
nuclear and peace activists staged a series of protest actions at the
Nevada Test Site, beginning on Easter Sunday in 1986 and continuing
through 1987. Hundreds of people were arrested, including Sagan, who
was arrested on two separate occasions as he climbed over a chain-link
fence at the test site.

[edit] Death and legacy

Stone dedicated to Carl Sagan in the Celebrity Path of the Brooklyn
Botanic GardenAfter a long and difficult fight with myelodysplasia,
which included three bone marrow transplants, Sagan died of pneumonia
at the age of 62 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in
Seattle, Washington on December 20, 1996. After landing, the unmanned
Mars Pathfinder spacecraft was renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station
on July 5, 1997. Asteroid 2709 Sagan is also named in his honor. He
was buried at Lakeview Cemetery in Ithaca, New York.

The 1997 movie Contact, based on Sagan's novel of the same name and
finished after his death, ends with the dedication "For Carl".

On November 9, 2001, on what would have been Sagan's 67th birthday,
the NASA Ames Research Center dedicated the site for the Carl Sagan
Center for the Study of Life in the Cosmos. "Carl was an incredible
visionary, and now his legacy can be preserved and advanced by a 21st
century research and education laboratory committed to enhancing our
understanding of life in the universe and furthering the cause of
space exploration for all time", said NASA Administrator Daniel
Goldin. Ann Druyan was at the Center as it opened its doors on October
22, 2006.

Sagan's son, Nick Sagan, wrote several episodes in the Star Trek
franchise. In an episode of Star Trek: Enterprise entitled "Terra
Prime", a quick shot is shown of the relic rover Sojourner, part of
the Mars Pathfinder mission, placed by a historical marker at Carl
Sagan Memorial Station on the Martian surface. The marker displays a
quote from Sagan: "Whatever the reason you're on Mars, I'm glad you're
there, and I wish I was with you." Sagan's student Steve Squyres led
the team that landed the Spirit Rover and Opportunity Rover
successfully on Mars in 2004.

Sagan has at least three awards named in his honor:

The Carl Sagan Memorial Award presented jointly since 1997 by the
American Astronautical Society (AAS) and the Planetary Society,
The Carl Sagan Medal for Excellence in Public Communication in
Planetary Science presented since 1998 by the American Astronomical
Society's Division for Planetary Sciences (AAS/DPS) for outstanding
communication by an active planetary scientist to the general public —
Carl Sagan was one of the original organizing committee members of the
DPS, and
The Carl Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science presented by
the Council of Scientific Society Presidents (CSSP) — Sagan himself
was the first recipient of the CSSP award in 1993.[48]
In 2006, the Carl Sagan Medal was awarded to astrobiologist and author
David Grinspoon, the son of Sagan's friend Lester Grinspoon.

On December 20, 2006, the tenth anniversary of Sagan's death, a
blogger, Joel Schlosberg, organized a Carl Sagan "blog-a-thon" to
commemorate Sagan's death, and the idea was supported by Nick Sagan.
[49] Many members of the blogging community participated.

In 2008, Benn Jordan, also known as The Flashbulb, released the album
"Pale Blue Dot: A Tribute to Carl Sagan".

In 2009, clips from Carl Sagan's Cosmos were used as the basis for A
Glorious Dawn, the first video produced for the Symphony of Science,
an educational music video production by composer John Boswell.
Musician Jack White later released this song as a vinyl single under
his record label Third Man Records.[50] Additional clips were used in
the followup video, We Are All Connected, which featured Sagan
alongside other noted scientists Richard Feynman, Neil Degrasse Tyson,
and Bill Nye.

Also in 2009, the 75th anniversary of Carl Sagan's birth, the First
"Carl Sagan Day" has been celebrated on November 7.[51]

[edit] Awards and honors

NASA Distinguished Public Service MedalAnnual Award for Television
Excellence - 1981 - Ohio State University - PBS series Cosmos
Apollo Achievement Award - National Aeronautics and Space
Administration
NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal - National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (twice)
Emmy - Outstanding Individual Achievement - 1981 - PBS series Cosmos
Emmy - Outstanding Informational Series - 1981 - PBS series Cosmos
Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal - National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
Helen Caldicott Leadership Award - Women's Action for Nuclear
Disarmament
Hugo Award - 1981 - Cosmos
Humanist of the Year - 1981 - Awarded by the American Humanist
Association
In Praise of Reason Award - 1987 - Committee for the Scientific
Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal
Isaac Asimov Award - 1994 - Committee for the Scientific Investigation
of Claims of the Paranormal
John F. Kennedy Astronautics Award - American Astronautical Society
John W. Campbell Memorial Award - 1974 - Cosmic Connection: An
Extraterrestrial Perspective
Joseph Priestley Award - "For distinguished contributions to the
welfare of mankind"
Klumpke-Roberts Award of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific -
1974
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Medal - Awarded by the Soviet Cosmonauts
Federation
Locus Award 1986 - Contact
Lowell Thomas Award - Explorers Club - 75th Anniversary
Masursky Award - American Astronomical Society
Miller Research Fellowship - Miller Institute (1960–1962)
New Jersey Hall of Fame - 2009 inductee [52]
Oersted Medal - 1990 - American Association of Physics Teachers
Peabody Award - 1980 - PBS series Cosmos
Prix Galbert - The international prize of Astronautics
Public Welfare Medal - 1994 - National Academy of Sciences
Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction - 1978 - The Dragons of Eden
SF Chronicle Award - 1998 - Contact
Named the "99th Greatest American" on the June 5, 2005, Greatest
American show on the Discovery Channel
[edit] Personal life
Sagan married three times: in 1957, to biologist Lynn Margulis, mother
of Dorion Sagan and Jeremy Sagan; in 1968, to artist Linda Salzman,
mother of Nick Sagan; and in 1981, to author Ann Druyan, mother of
Alexandra Rachel (Sasha) Sagan and Samuel Democritus Sagan. His
marriage to Druyan continued until his death in 1996.

[edit] Publications
Planets (LIFE Science Library), Sagan, Carl, Jonathon Norton Leonard
and editors of Life, Time, Inc., 1966
Intelligent Life in the Universe, I.S. Shklovskii coauthor, Random
House, 1966, 509 pgs
UFO's: A Scientific Debate, Thornton Page coauthor, Cornell University
Press, 1972, 310 pgs
Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence. MIT Press, 1973, 428
pgs
Mars and the Mind of Man, Sagan, Carl, et al., Harper & Row, 1973, 143
pgs
Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective, Jerome Agel
coauthor, Anchor Press, 1973, ISBN 0-521-78303-8, 301 pgs
Other Worlds. Bantam Books, 1975
Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record, Sagan, Carl, et
al., Random House, ISBN 0-394-41047-5, 1978
The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human
Intelligence. Ballantine Books, 1978, ISBN 0-345-34629-7, 288 pgs
Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. Ballantine
Books, 1979, ISBN 0-345-33689-5, 416 pgs
Cosmos. Random house, 1980. Random House New Edition, May 7, 2002,
ISBN 0-375-50832-5, 384 pgs
The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War, Sagan, Carl et
al., Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985
Comet, Ann Druyan coauthor, Ballantine Books, 1985, ISBN
0-345-41222-2, 496 pgs
Contact. Simon and Schuster, 1985; Reissued August 1997 by Doubleday
Books, ISBN 1-56865-424-3, 352 pgs
A Path Where No Man Thought: Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms
Race, Richard Turco coauthor, Random House, 1990, ISBN 0-394-58307-8,
499 pgs
Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors: A Search for Who We Are, Ann Druyan
coauthor, Ballantine Books, October 1993, ISBN 0-345-38472-5, 528 pgs
Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space. Random House,
November 1994, ISBN 0-679-43841-6, 429 pgs
The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Ballantine
Books, March 1996, ISBN 0-345-40946-9, 480 pgs (note: the book was
first published and copyrighted in 1995 with an errata slip inserted)
Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the
Millennium, Ann Druyan coauthor, Ballantine Books, June 1997, ISBN
0-345-37918-7, 320 pgs
The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search
for God, Carl Sagan (writer) & Ann Druyan (editor), 1985 Gifford
lectures, Penguin Press HC, November 2006, ISBN 1-59420-107-2, 304
pgs
[edit] References
^ Sagan, Carl (1994). Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in
Space (1st ed.). New York: Random House. p. 68. ISBN 0-679-43841-6.
^ a b "StarChild: Dr. Carl Sagan". NASA.
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level2/sagan.html.
Retrieved 2009-10-08.
^ a b Poundstone, William (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life in the Cosmos.
New York: Henry Holt & Company. pp. 363–364, 374–375. ISBN
0-805-05766-8.
^ Davidson, Keay (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 33–
41. ISBN 0-471-25286-7.
^ http://astro.uchicago.edu/RAS/
^ Graduate students receive first Sagan teaching awards
^ Charlie Rose interview, January 5, 1994
^ Much of Sagan's research in the field of planetary science is
outlined by William Poundstone. Poundstone's biography of Sagan
includes an 8-page list of Sagan's scientific articles published from
1957 to 1998. Detailed information about Sagan's scientific work comes
from the primary research articles. Example: Sagan, C., Thompson, W.
R., and Khare, B. N. Titan: A Laboratory for Prebiological Organic
Chemistry, Accounts of Chemical Research, volume 25, page 286 (1992).
There is commentary on this research article about Titan at The
Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight.
^ The Planetary Society. "Carl Sagan". The Planetary Society.
http://www.planetary.org/about/founders/carl_sagan.html. Retrieved
2007-05-14.
^ "Carl Sagan". ***@Minnesota State University.
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/pqrst/sagan_carl.html.
Retrieved 2009-10-08.
^ "CosmoLearning Astronomy". CosmoLearning. http://www.cosmolearning.com/documentaries/cosmos/.
Retrieved 2009-10-08.
^ "Meet Dr. Carl Sagan". The Science Channel.
http://science.discovery.com/convergence/cosmos/bio/bio.html?clik=fsmain_feat3.
Retrieved 2007-05-02.
^ Carl Sagan, Astronomer: Author of Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the
Human Future in Space. Interview with Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose. PBS
New York. 1995-01-05. (Interview [.SWF]). Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
starts at 00:39:29
^ Morrison, David (2007). Man for the Cosmos: Carl Sagan's Life and
Legacy as Scientist, Teacher, and Skeptic. Skeptical Inquirer January/
February, 31(1), pp. 29-38.
^ Sagan, Carl. The Demon-Haunted World. p. 257.
^ Head, Tom (2006). Conversations With Carl Sagan. University Press of
Mississippi. pp. 86–87. ISBN 1-578-06736-7.
^ "David Morrison - Taking a Hit: Asteroid Impacts & Evolution".
Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures. 2007-10-03.
^ Sagan, Carl; Ostro (1994), "Long-Range Consequences of
Interplanetary Collisions", Issues in Science and Technology Vol X
(Number 4)
^ a b c Sagan, Carl; p. 3-4 (1998). Billions and Billions. New York:
Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-37918-7.
^ Fred R. Shapiro and Joseph Epstein (2006). "Carl Sagan". The Yale
Book of Quotations. Yale University Press. pp. 660. ISBN
0-300-10798-6.
^ Carl Sagan (1980). Cosmos. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-33135-4.
^ Myers portrayed Sagan in "SNL: Carl Sagan's Global Warming Christmas
Special [VIDEO]"<http://www.alternet.org/blogs/video/71374/>
^ Sagan at dictionary.reference.com (definition from the Jargon File)
^ William Safire, ON LANGUAGE; Footprints on the Infobahn, New York
Times, April 17, 1994
^ "This Week in Apple History: November 14-20". The Mac Observer.
http://www.macobserver.com/columns/thisweek/2004/20041120.shtml.
^ Carl Sagan, Plaintiff, v. Apple Computer, Inc., Defendant CV 94-2180
LGB (BRx) United States District Court for the Central District of
California 874 F. Supp. 1072; 1994 U.S. Dist. Lexis 20154 June 27,
1994, Decided June 27, 1994, Filed
^ The Columbia Encyclopedia. "Sagan, Carl Edward". Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press. http://www.bartelby.com/65/sa/Sagan-Ca.html.
Retrieved 2007-05-02.
^ Anthony Barnes (2005-10-23). "2001: The Secrets of Kubrick's
Classic". The Independent. http://arts.independent.co.uk/film/news/article321643.ece.
Retrieved 2009-08-07.
^ a b Westrum, Ron; Jacobs, David Michael (ed.) (2000). "Limited
Access: Six Natural Scientists and the UFO Phenomenon". UFOs and
abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, Kansas:
University Press of Kansas. pp. 30–55. ISBN 0-700-61032-4.
^ Appelle, Stuart; Jacobs, David Michael (ed.) (2000). "Ufology and
Academia: The UFO Phenomenon as a Scholarly Discipline". UFOs and
abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge. Lawrence, Kansas:
University Press of Kansas. pp. 7–30. ISBN 0-700-61032-4.
^ Sagan, 1996: 81-96, 99-104
^ Sagan, Carl (1986-02-12). "Chapter 23". Broca's Brain: Reflections
on the Romance of Science. Ballantine Books. p. 330. ISBN
0345336895.
^ Achenbach, Joel (2006-04-23). "Worlds Away". Washington Post: p.
W15. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/18/AR2006041801870.html.
^ Head, Tom. "Conversations with Carl". Skeptic 13 (1): 32–38.
Excerpted in Head, Tom, ed. (2006). University of Mississippi Press.
ISBN 1-57806-736-7..
^ Sagan, Carl (1996). The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in
the Dark. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 278. ISBN 0-345-40946-9.
^ "Encyclopaedia Galactica". Carl Sagan (writer/host). Cosmos. PBS.
1980-12-14. No. 12. 01:24 minutes in.
^ Truzzi, Marcello (1998). "On Some Unfair Practices towards Claims of
the Paranormal". Oxymoron: Annual Thematic Anthology of the Arts and
Sciences, Vol.2: The Fringe. Oxymoron Media.
http://www.skepticalinvestigations.org/anomalistics/practices.htm.
Retrieved 2007-05-02.
^ A sense of place in the heartland, The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Online
^ Sagan (1996), p. 302
^ Sagan, Carl (1985-10-12). Cosmos. Ballantine Books. p. 108. ISBN
0345331354.
^ Grinspoon, Lester (1994). Marihuana Reconsidered (2nd ed.). Oakland,
CA: Quick American Archives. ISBN 0-932-55113-0.
^ Sagan, Carl. "Mr. X". Marijuana-Uses.com. http://www.marijuana-uses.com/essays/002.html.
Retrieved 2009-08-07.
^ Whitehouse, David (1999-10-15). "Carl Sagan: A Life in the Cosmos".
BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/475954.stm. Retrieved
2007-05-02.
^ Davidson, Keay (1999-08-22). "US: Billions and Billions of '60s
Flashbacks". San Francisco Examiner. http://www.druglibrary.org/think/~jnr/sagan.htm.
Retrieved 2007-05-02.
^ Larsen, Dana (1999-11-01). "Carl Sagan: Toking Astronomer". Cannabis
Culture Magazine. http://cannabisculture.com/articles/63.html.
Retrieved 2007-05-02.
^ Asimov, Isaac (1980). In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac
Asimov, 1954-1978. Doubleday/Avon. pp. 217, 302. ISBN 0-380-53025-2.
^ Turco RP, Toon OB, Ackerman TP, Pollack JB, Sagan C. Climate and
smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter, Science, volume 247, pages
166-176 (1990). PubMed abstract JSTOR link to full text article. Carl
Sagan discussed his involvement in the political nuclear winter
debates and his erroneous global cooling prediction for the Gulf War
fires in his book, The Demon-Haunted World.
^ "Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science". The Council of
Scientific Society Presidents. http://cssp.us/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=47.
Retrieved 2007-05-02.
^ Joel's humanistic blog: Announcing the Carl Sagan memorial blog-a-
thon
^ "Jack White: Carl Sagan's Biggest Fan". The Washington Post.
http://voices.washingtonpost.com/reliable-source/2009/11/jack_white_carl_sagans_biggest.html.
Retrieved 2009-11-11.
^ http://www.carlsaganday.com/
^ New Jersey to Bon Jovi: You Give Us a Good Name Yahoo News, February
2, 2009
[edit] Further reading
Davidson, Keay (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. New York: John Wiley &
Sons. pp. 33–41. ISBN 0471252867.
Head, Tom (ed.) (2005). Conversations with Carl Sagan. Jackson,
Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1578067367.
Poundstone, William (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life in the Cosmos. New
York: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 0805057668.
Morrison, David (2006). Carl Sagan: The People's Astronomer.
AmeriQuests, vol. 3. no. 2: PDF.
Achenbach, Joel (1999). Captured by Aliens: the search for life and
truth in a very large universe. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN
0-684-84856-2. Includes detailed account of Sagan's role in the search
for extraterrestrial life.
[edit] External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Carl Sagan
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Carl Sagan
The Carl Sagan Portal
Carl Sagan at the Internet Movie Database
Works by or about Carl Sagan in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Carl Sagan at Find a Grave
Carl Sagan Prize for Science Popularization
Carl Sagan Medal for Excellence in Public Communication in Planetary
Science, presented by the American Astronomical Society's Division for
Planetary Sciences (AAS/DPS)
[edit] Dated
Can We Know the Universe? – 1979 essay by Carl Sagan, taken from his
book Broca's Brain
Carl Sagan Charlie Rose interviews, 1995, two interviews in 1996
Talk of the Nation – Ira Flatow interviews Sagan on his book The Demon-
Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (May 3, 1996)
Wonder & Skepticism - Carl Sagan delivers one of his last public
addresses on the subject of Scientific literacy and Skepticism.
Skeptical Inquirer: Carl Sagan's Life & Legacy (Jan./Feb. 2007)
Authority control: PND: 115873937 | LCCN: n 79064998 | VIAF: 36997809
Persondata
NAME Sagan, Carl
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Sagan, Carl Edward
SHORT DESCRIPTION Astronomy and planetary science
DATE OF BIRTH November 9, 1934(1934-11-09)
PLACE OF BIRTH Brooklyn, New York
DATE OF DEATH December 20, 1996
PLACE OF DEATH Seattle, Washington


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treasure. Help us protect it. Arthur C. Clarke
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Sir Arthur C. Clarke, CBE
Arthur C. Clarke at his home office in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 March
2005
Born 16 December 1917(1917-12-16)
Minehead, Somerset, England, United Kingdom
Died 19 March 2008 (aged 90)
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Pen name Charles Willis,[1]
E.G. O'Brien[1]
Occupation Author, Inventor
Nationality British and
Sri Lankan
Genres Hard science fiction
Popular science
Subjects Science
Notable work(s) Childhood's End
2001: A Space Odyssey
Rendezvous with Rama
The Fountains of Paradise
Spouse(s) Marilyn Mayfield (1953-1964)
Influences[show]
H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Lord Dunsany, Olaf Stapledon
Influenced[show]
Stephen Baxter
Official website
Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS (16 December
1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction author, inventor,
and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written
in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which
also produced the film of the same name; and as a host and commentator
in the British television series Mysterious World.[2][3]
Clarke served in the Royal Air Force as a radar instructor and
technician from 1941-1946, proposed satellite communication systems in
1945[4][5] which won him the Franklin Institute Stuart Ballantine Gold
Medal in 1963. He was the chairman of the British Interplanetary
Society from 1947-1950 and again in 1953.[6] Later, he helped fight
for the preservation of lowland gorillas.[7][8]
Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka in 1956 largely to pursue his interest
in scuba diving,[9] and lived there until his death. He was knighted
by the British monarchy in 1998,[10][11] and was awarded Sri Lanka's
highest civil honour, Sri Lankabhimanya, in 2005.[12]
Contents [hide]
1 Biography
1.1 Writing career
1.2 Later years
2 Position on religion
3 Views on paranormal phenomena
4 Themes, style, and influences
5 Adapted screenplays
5.1 2001: A Space Odyssey
5.2 2010
5.3 Rendezvous with Rama
6 Beyond 2001
7 Essays and short stories
8 Concept of the geostationary communications satellite
9 Awards, honours and other recognition
10 Partial bibliography
10.1 Select Novels
10.2 Short story collections
10.3 Non-fiction
11 See also
12 Cited references
13 External links
[edit] Biography
Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England.[13] As a boy he
enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp
magazines. After secondary school and studying at Huish's Grammar
School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and
got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of
Education.[14]
During the Second World War he served in the Royal Air Force as a
radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence
system, which contributed to the RAF's success during the Battle of
Britain. Clarke spent most of his wartime service working on Ground
Controlled Approach (GCA) radar as documented in the semi-
autobiographical Glide Path, his only non-science-fiction novel.
Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, it proved
vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 after several years of
development. Clarke initially served in the ranks, and was a Corporal
instructor on radar at No 9 Radio School, RAF Yatesbury. He was
commissioned as a Pilot Officer (Technical Branch) on 27 May 1943.[15]
He was promoted Flying Officer on 27 November 1943.[16] He was
appointed chief training instructor at RAF Honiley and was demobilised
with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war he earned a first-
class degree in mathematics and physics at King's College London.
In the postwar years, Clarke became the Chairman of the British
Interplanetary Society from 1946-1947 [17] and again from 1951-1953
[18]. Although he was not the originator of the concept of
geostationary satellites, one of his most important contributions may
be his idea that they would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
advanced this idea in a paper privately circulated among the core
technical members of the BIS in 1945. The concept was published in
a number of non-fiction books describing the technical details and
societal implications of rocketry and space flight. The most notable
of these may be The Exploration of Space (1951) and The Promise of
Space (1968). In recognition of these contributions the geostationary
orbit 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) above the equator is officially
recognized by the International Astronomical Union as a Clarke Orbit.
[22]
On a trip to Florida in 1953[23] Clarke met and quickly married
Marilyn Mayfield, a 22-year-old American divorcee with a young son.
They separated permanently after six months, although the divorce was
not finalised until 1964.[24] "The marriage was incompatible from the
beginning", says Clarke.[24] Clarke never remarried but was close to
Leslie Ekanayake, who died in 1977. In his biography of Stanley
Kubrick, John Baxter cites Clarke's homosexuality as a reason why
Clarke relocated, due to more tolerant laws in regards to
homosexuality in Sri Lanka.[25] Journalists who inquired of Clarke
whether he was gay were told, "No, merely mildly cheerful."[26]
However, Michael Moorcock has written
Everyone knew he was gay. In the 1950s I'd go out drinking with his
boyfriend. We met his proteges, western and eastern, and their
families: people who had only the most generous praise for his
kindness. Self-absorbed he might be, and a teetotaller, but an
impeccable gent through and through.[27]
Moorcook's assertion is not supported by other reports, although in an
interview in the July 1986 issue of Playboy magazine,[28] Clarke
stated "Of course. Who hasn't?" when asked if he has had bisexual
experiences.[29]
Clarke also maintained a vast collection of manuscripts and personal
memoirs, maintained by his brother Fred Clarke in Taunton, Somerset,
England, and referred to as the "Clarkives." Clarke has said that some
of his private diaries will not be published until 30 years after his
death. When asked why they were sealed up, he answered "'Well, there
might be all sorts of embarrassing things in them".[30]
[edit] Writing career
While Clarke had a few stories published in fanzines, between 1937 and
1945, his first professional sales appeared in Astounding Science
Fiction in 1946: "Loophole" was published in April, while "Rescue
Party", his first sale, was published in May. Along with his writing
Clarke briefly worked as Assistant Editor of Science Abstracts (1949)
before devoting himself to writing full-time from 1951 onward. Clarke
also contributed to the Dan Dare series published in Eagle, and his
first three published novels were written for children.
Clarke corresponded with C. S. Lewis in the 1940s and 1950s and they
once met in an Oxford pub, The Eastgate, to discuss science fiction
and space travel. Clarke, after Lewis's death, voiced great praise for
him, saying the Ransom Trilogy was one of the few works of science
fiction that could be considered literature.
In 1948 he wrote "The Sentinel" for a BBC competition. Though the
story was rejected it changed the course of Clarke's career. Not only
was it the basis for A Space Odyssey, but "The Sentinel" also
introduced a more mystical and cosmic element to Clarke's work. Many
of Clarke's later works feature a technologically advanced but still-
prejudiced mankind being confronted by a superior alien intelligence.
In the cases of The City and the Stars (and its original version,
Against the Fall of Night), Childhood's End, and the 2001 series, this
encounter produces a conceptual breakthrough that accelerates humanity
into the next stage of its evolution. In Clarke's authorized
biography, Neil McAleer writes that: "many readers and critics still
consider [Childhood's End] Arthur C. Clarke's best novel."[24]
Clarke lived in Sri Lanka from 1956 until his death in 2008, having
emigrated there when it was still called Ceylon, first in Unawatuna on
the south coast, and then in Colombo.[26] Clarke held citizenship of
both the UK and Sri Lanka.[31] He was an avid scuba diver and a member
of the Underwater Explorers Club. Living in Sri Lanka afforded him the
opportunity to visit the ocean year-round. It also inspired the locale
for his novel The Fountains of Paradise in which he described a space
elevator. This, he believed, ultimately will be his legacy, more so
than geostationary satellites, once space elevators make rocket based
access to space obsolete.[32]
His many predictions culminated in 1958 when he began a series of
essays in various magazines that eventually became Profiles of the
Future published in book form in 1962. A timetable[33] up to the year
2100 describes inventions and ideas including such things as a "global
library" for 2005.
[edit] Later years
In the early 1970s Clarke signed a three-book publishing deal, a
record for a science-fiction writer at the time. The first of the
three was Rendezvous with Rama in 1973, which won him all the main
genre awards and has spawned sequels that, along with the 2001 series,
formed the backbone of his later career.
In
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Stephen hawkings)
Jump to: navigation, search
Stephen William Hawking


Stephen Hawking at NASA
Born Stephen William Hawking
8 January 1942 (1942-01-08) (age 67)
Oxford, England
Residence England
Nationality British
Fields Applied mathematician
Theoretical physicist
Institutions University of Cambridge
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Alma mater University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Dennis Sciama
Other academic advisors Robert Berman
Doctoral students Bruce Allen
Raphael Bousso
Fay Dowker
Malcolm Perry
Bernard Carr
Gary Gibbons
Harvey Reall
Don Page
Tim Prestidge
Raymond Laflamme
Julian Luttrell
Known for Black holes
Theoretical cosmology
Quantum gravity
Influences Dikran Tahta
Notable awards Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
Copley Medal (2006)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Signature

Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a
British theoretical physicist, whose world-renowned scientific career
spans over 40 years. His books and public appearances have made him an
academic celebrity and he is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society
of Arts,[1] a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences,
[2] and in 2009 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the
highest civilian award in the United States.[3]

He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and
quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes. He has also
achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses
his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the runaway
best seller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British
Sunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.[4]

Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with
Roger Penrose, theorems regarding singularities in the framework of
general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes
should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or
sometimes as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation).[5]

Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of
Cambridge for thirty years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on
1 October 2009.[6][7] He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Caius
College, Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter
Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario.[8]

Hawking has a neuro-muscular dystrophy that is related to amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the
years and has left him almost completely paralysed.

Contents [hide]
1 Early life and education
2 Career in theoretical physics
2.1 Research fields
2.2 Losing an old bet
2.3 Mankind's future in space
3 Illness
4 As popular science advocate
4.1 Religious views
5 Recognition
5.1 Acclaim
5.2 Distinctions
5.3 Awards and honours
6 Personal life
7 Selected publications
7.1 Technical
7.2 Popular
7.3 Children's fiction
7.4 Films and series
8 See also
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links
11.1 Dated


Early life and education
Stephen Hawking was born to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist,
and Isobel Hawking. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary and
an adopted brother, Edward.[9] Though Hawking's parents were living in
North London, they moved to Oxford while Isobel was pregnant with
Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child
(London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe).[10] According
to Hawking, a German V-2 missile struck only a few streets away.[11]

After Hawking was born, the family moved back to London, where his
father headed the division of parasitology at the National Institute
for Medical Research.[9] In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St
Albans in Hertfordshire where he attended St Albans High School for
Girls from 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls
school until the age of 10.[12]) From the age of 11, he attended St
Albans School, where he was a good, but not exceptional, student.[9]
When asked later to name a teacher who had inspired him, Hawking named
his Mathematics teacher, Dikran Tahta.[13] He maintains his connection
with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an
extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited to deliver one
of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils
working on the school magazine, The Albanian.

Hawking was always interested in science.[9] Inspired by his
mathematics teacher, he originally wanted to study mathematics at
university. However, Hawking's father wanted him to apply to
University College, Oxford, the college that his father had attended.
As University College did not have a mathematics fellow at that time,
it would not accept applications from students who wished to read
mathematics. Hawking therefore applied to read natural sciences, in
which he gained a scholarship. Once at University College, Hawking
specialised in physics.[10] His interests during this time were in
thermodynamics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor,
Robert Berman, later said in The New York Times Magazine:

It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done,
and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it.
[...] He didn't have very many books, and he didn't take notes. Of
course, his mind was completely different from all of his
contemporaries.[9]

Hawking was passing, but his unimpressive study habits resulted in a
final examination score on the borderline between first and second
class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary. Berman said of
the oral examination:

And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize
they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves.
[9]

After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford University in 1962, he
stayed to study astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that
studying sunspots, which was all the observatory was equipped for, did
not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theory than in
observation.[9] He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he
engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.

Career in theoretical physics
Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing
symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (known colloquially in the
US as Lou Gehrig's disease), a type of motor neuron disease which
would cost him almost all neuromuscular control. During his first two
years at Cambridge, he did not distinguish himself, but, after the
disease had stabilized and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis
William Sciama, he returned to working on his Ph.D.[9]

Hawking was elected as one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal
Society in 1974, was created a Commander of the Order of the British
Empire in 1982, and became a Companion of Honour in 1989. Hawking is a
member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists.

Hawking's achievements were made despite the increasing paralysis
caused by the ALS. By 1974, he was unable to feed himself or get out
of bed. His speech became slurred so that he could only be understood
by people who knew him well. In 1985, he caught pneumonia and had to
have a tracheotomy, which made him unable to speak at all. A Cambridge
scientist built a device that enables Hawking to write onto a computer
with small movements of his body, and then have a voice synthesizer
speak what he has typed.[14]

Research fields
Hawking's principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and
quantum gravity.


Professor Stephen Hawking in Cambridge.In the late 1960s, he and his
Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose, applied a new, complex
mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein's general
theory of relativity.[15] This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the
first of many singularity theorems; such theorems provide a set of
sufficient conditions for the existence of a singularity in space-
time. This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities
which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic
feature of general relativity.[16]

He supplied a mathematical proof, along with Brandon Carter, Werner
Israel and D. Robinson, of John Wheeler's "No-Hair Theorem" – namely,
that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of
mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.

Hawking also suggested that, upon analysis of gamma ray emissions,
after the Big Bang, primordial mini black holes were formed. With
Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics,
drawing an analogy with thermodynamics. In 1974, he calculated that
black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles,
known today as Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and
evaporate.[17]

In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which
the universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial
singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the
North pole: One cannot travel north of the North Pole, as there is no
boundary there. While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a
closed universe, discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation
that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a universe which
is not closed.

Hawking's many other scientific investigations have included the study
of quantum cosmology, cosmic inflation, helium production in
anisotropic Big Bang universes, large N cosmology, the density matrix
of the universe, topology and structure of the universe, baby
universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix, anti de Sitter
space, quantum entanglement and entropy, the nature of space and time,
including the arrow of time, spacetime foam, string theory,
supergravity, Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitational
Hamiltonian, Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation,
gravitational radiation, and wormholes.

At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA's 50th
anniversary, Prof. Hawking theorised on the existence of
extraterrestrial life, believing that "primitive life is very common
and intelligent life is fairly rare."[18]

Losing an old bet
Main article: Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet

U.S. President Barack Obama talks with Stephen Hawking in the Blue
Room of the White House before a ceremony presenting him and 15 others
the Presidential Medal of Freedom on Aug. 12, 2009. The Medal of
Freedom is the nation's highest civilian honour.Hawking was in the
news in July 2004 for presenting a new theory about black holes which
goes against his own long-held belief about their behaviour, thus
losing a bet he made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech.
Classically, it can be shown that information crossing the event
horizon of a black hole is lost to our universe, and that thus all
black holes are identical beyond their mass, electrical charge and
angular velocity (the "no hair theorem"). The problem with this
theorem is that it implies the black hole will emit the same radiation
regardless of what goes into it, and as a consequence that if a pure
quantum state is thrown into a black hole, an "ordinary" mixed state
will be returned. This runs counter to the rules of quantum mechanics
and is known as the black hole information paradox.

Mankind's future in space
At the 50th Anniversary of NASA in 2008, Hawking gave a keynote speech
on the final frontier exhorting and inspiring the space technology
community on why we (the human race) explore space.[19]

At the celebration of his 65th birthday on 8 January, 2007, Hawking
announced his plan to take a zero-gravity flight in 2007 to prepare
for a sub-orbital spaceflight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space
service. Billionaire Richard Branson pledged to pay all expenses for
the latter, costing an estimated £100,000.[20] Stephen Hawking's zero-
gravity flight in a "Vomit Comet" of Zero Gravity Corporation, during
which he experienced weightlessness eight times, took place on 26
April 2007.[21] He became the first quadriplegic to float in zero-
gravity. This was the first time in 40 years that he moved freely,
without his wheelchair. The fee is normally US$3,750 for 10–15
plunges, but Hawking was not required to pay the fee. A bit of a
futurist,[22] Hawking was quoted before the flight saying:

Many people have asked me why I am taking this flight. I am doing it
for many reasons. First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an
ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden
nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers. I think
the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. I therefore
want to encourage public interest in space.[23]

In an interview with the British newspaper Telegraph, he suggested
that space was the Earth's long term hope.[24] He continued this theme
at a 2008 Charlie Rose interview.[25]

Illness

Hawking on 5 May 2006, during the press conference at the Bibliothèque
nationale de France to inaugurate the Laboratory of Astronomy and
Particles in Paris and the French release of his work God Created the
Integers.Stephen Hawking is severely disabled by motor neuron disease,
likely a variant of the disease known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(or ALS). Most neuromuscular specialists believe he has spinal
muscular atrophy type IV. Hawking's illness is markedly different from
typical ALS in the fact that his form of ALS would make for the most
protracted case ever documented. A survival for more than 10 years
after diagnosis is uncommon for ALS; the longest documented durations
are 32 and 39 years and these cases were termed benign because of the
lack of the typical progressive course.[26]

When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other
children. At Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped
relieve his immense boredom at the university. Symptoms of the
disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at Cambridge; he lost
his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head.
Worried that he would lose his genius, he took the Mensa test to
verify that his intellectual abilities were intact.[27] The diagnosis
of motor neuron disease came when Hawking was 21, shortly before his
first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or
three years. Hawking gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and
voice, and is now (in 2009) almost completely paralysed.

During a visit to the research centre CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking
contracted pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as
it further restricted his already limited respiratory capacity. He had
an emergency tracheotomy, and as a result lost what remained of his
ability to speak. He has since used an electronic voice synthesizer to
communicate.

The DECtalk DTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American
accent, is no longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept it
after so many years, Hawking mentioned that he has not heard a voice
he likes better and that he identifies with it. Hawking is said to be
looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the
synthesizer is both large and fragile by current standards. He is (as
of mid 2009) said to be using NeoSpeech's VoiceText speech synthesizer.
[28]

In Hawking's many media appearances, he appears to speak fluently
through his synthesizer, but in reality, it is a tedious drawn-out
process. Hawking's setup uses a predictive text entry system, which
requires only the first few characters in order to auto-complete the
word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry,
constructing complete sentences takes time. His speeches are prepared
in advance, but having a live conversation with him provides insight
as to the complexity and work involved. During a Technology,
Entertainment, & Design Conference talk, it took him seven minutes to
answer a question.[29]

He describes himself as lucky despite his disease. Its slow
progression has allowed him time to make influential discoveries and
has not hindered him from having, in his own words, "a very attractive
family."[30] When Jane was asked why she decided to marry a man with a
three-year life expectancy, she responded, "Those were the days of
atomic gloom and doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."

Wikinews has related news: Scientist Stephen Hawking rushed to
hospital in ambulance
On 20 April 2009, Cambridge University released a statement saying
that Hawking was "very ill" with a chest infection, and was admitted
to Addenbrooke's Hospital.[31][32] The following day, it was reported
that his new condition is "comfortable" and he should make a full
recovery from the infection.[33]

In 2009, Investor's Business Daily (IBD) claimed in an editorial,[34]
"People such as scientist Stephen Hawking wouldn't have a chance in
the UK, where the National Health Service would say the life of this
brilliant man, because of his physical handicaps, is essentially
worthless." This caused widespread criticism, as Hawking does in fact
live in the UK, and has received NHS treatment.[35] Hawking personally
replied that, "I wouldn't be here today if it were not for the NHS,"
he said. "I have received a large amount of high-quality treatment
without which I would not have survived."[36] Eventually, IBD issued a
correction,[37] but continued to defend the original editorial,
calling the mention of Hawking a "bad example" and accusing those that
mentioned their error of "chang[ing] the subject."[38]

As popular science advocate
Main article: Stephen Hawking in popular culture
Hawking has played as himself on many television shows and has been
portrayed in many more. He has played himself on a Red Dwarf
anniversary special, played a hologram of himself on the episode
"Descent" of Star Trek: The Next Generation, appeared in a skit on
Late Night with Conan O'Brien, and appeared on the Discovery Channel
special Alien Planet.[39] He has also played himself in several
episodes of The Simpsons and Futurama. When he was portrayed on
episodes of Family Guy, the voice was actually done by a speech
synthesizer on a Macintosh computer, according to DVD Commentary. He
has also appeared in an episode of the Dilbert cartoon. His actual
synthesizer voice was used on parts of the Pink Floyd song "Keep
Talking" from the 1994 album The Division Bell, as well as on
Turbonegro's "Intro: The Party Zone" on their 2005 album Party
Animals, Wolfsheim's "Kein Zurück (Oliver Pinelli Mix)". As well as
being fictionalised as nerdcore hip hop artist MC Hawking, he was
impersonated in duet with Richard Cheese on a cover of "The Girl Is
Mine". In 2008, Hawking was the subject of and featured in the
documentary series Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe for Channel
4. He was also portrayed in the movie "Superhero Movie" by Robert Joy.
In the TV series Dark Angel Logan's technology savvy colleague
Sebastian is characterized with many similarities to the actual
physicist. In September 2008, Hawking presided over the unveiling of
the 'Chronophage' Corpus Clock (time eating) clock at Corpus Christi
College Cambridge.[40]

Religious views
Hawking takes an agnostic position on matters of religion.[41][42] He
has repeatedly used the word 'God' (in metaphorical meanings)[43] to
illustrate points made in his books and public speeches. His ex-wife
Jane however said he was an atheist during their divorce proceedings,
[44][45] Hawking has stated that he is "not religious in the normal
sense" and he believes that "the universe is governed by the laws of
science. The laws may have been decreed by God, but God does not
intervene to break the laws."[41]

Recognition
Acclaim
On 19 December 2007, a statue of Professor Stephen Hawking by renowned
late artist Ian Walters was unveiled at the Centre for Theoretical
Cosmology, Cambridge University.[46] In May 2008 the statue of Hawking
was unveiled at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences in
Cape Town. The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador, El
Salvador is named in honour of Stephen Hawking, citing his scientific
distinction and perseverance in dealing with adversity.[47] Stephen
Hawking Building in Cambridge, opened on 17 April 2007. The building
belongs to Gonville and Caius College and is used as an undergraduate
accommodation and conference facility.[48]

Distinctions
Hawking's belief that the lay person should have access to his work
led him to write a series of popular science books in addition to his
academic work. The first of these, A Brief History of Time, was
published on 1 April 1988 by Hawking, his family and friends, and some
leading physicists. It surprisingly became a best-seller and was
followed by The Universe in a Nutshell (2001). Both books have
remained highly popular all over the world. A collection of essays
titled Black Holes and Baby Universes (1993) was also popular. His
most recent book, A Briefer History of Time (2005), co-written by
Leonard Mlodinow, aims to update his earlier works and make them
accessible to an even wider audience. He and his daughter, Lucy
Hawking, have recently published a children's book focusing on science
that has been described to be "like Harry Potter, but without the
magic." This book is called George's Secret Key to the Universe and
includes information on Hawking radiation.

Hawking is also known for his wit; he is famous for his oft-made
statement, "When I hear of Schrödinger's cat, I reach for my pistol."
This was a deliberately ironic paraphrase of "Whenever I hear the word
culture... I release the safety-catch of my Browning", from the play
Schlageter (Act 1, Scene 1) by German playwright and Nazi Poet
Laureate Hanns Johst. His wit has both entertained the non-specialist
public and helped them to understand complex questions. Asked in
October 2005 on the British daytime chat show Richard & Judy, to
explain his assertion that the question "What came before the Big
Bang?" was meaningless, he compared it to asking "What lies north of
the North Pole?"

Hawking has generally avoided talking about politics at length, but he
has appeared on a political broadcast for the United Kingdom's Labour
Party. He supports the children's charity SOS Children's Villages UK.
[49]

Awards and honours
1975 Eddington Medal
1976 Hughes Medal of the Royal Society
1979 Albert Einstein Medal
1982 Order of the British Empire (Commander)
1985 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society
1986 Member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences
1988 Wolf Prize in Physics
1989 Prince of Asturias Awards in Concord
1989 Companion of Honour
1999 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society
[50]
2003 Michelson Morley Award of Case Western Reserve University
2006 Copley Medal of the Royal Society[51]
2008 Fonseca Price of the University of Santiago de Compostela[52]
2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honour in the
United States[3]
Personal life
Hawking revealed that he did not see much point in obtaining a
doctorate if he were to die soon. Hawking later said that the real
turning point was his 1965 marriage to Jane Wilde, a language student.
[9] After gaining his Ph.D. at Trinity Hall, Stephen became first a
Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and
Caius College.

Jane Hawking (née Wilde), Hawking's first wife, cared for him until
1991 when the couple separated, reportedly due to the pressures of
fame and his increasing disability. They had three children: Robert
(b. 1967), Lucy (b. 1969), and Timothy (b. 1979). Hawking then married
his nurse, Elaine Mason (who was previously married to David Mason,
the designer of the first version of Hawking's talking computer), in
1995. In October 2006, Hawking filed for divorce from his second wife.
[53]

In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars,
detailing her own long-term relationship with a family friend whom she
later married. Hawking's daughter, Lucy, is a novelist. Their oldest
son, Robert, emigrated to the United States, married, and has one
child, George Edward Hawking. Reportedly, Hawking and his first family
were reconciled in 2007.[54]

Selected publications
Technical
Singularities in Collapsing Stars and Expanding Universes with Dennis
William Sciama, 1969 Comments on Astrophysics and Space Physics Vol 1
#1
The Nature of Space and Time with Roger Penrose, foreword by Michael
Atiyah, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996, ISBN
0-691-05084-8
The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with George Ellis, 1973 ISBN
0521099064
The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind, (with Abner Shimony, Nancy
Cartwright, and Roger Penrose), Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN
0-521-56330-5 (hardback), ISBN 0-521-65538-2 (paperback), Canto
edition: ISBN 0-521-78572-3
Information Loss in Black Holes, Cambridge University Press, 2005
God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed
History, Running Press, 2005 ISBN 0762419229
Popular
A Brief History of Time, (Bantam Press 1988) ISBN 055305340X
Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, (Bantam Books 1993)
ISBN 0553374117
The Universe in a Nutshell, (Bantam Press 2001) ISBN 055380202X
On The Shoulders of Giants. The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy,
(Running Press 2002) ISBN 076241698X
A Briefer History of Time, (Bantam Books 2005) ISBN 0553804367
Footnote: On Hawking's website, he denounces the unauthorised
publication of The Theory of Everything and asks consumers to be aware
that he was not involved in its creation.

Children's fiction
These are co-written with his daughter Lucy.

George's Secret Key to the Universe, (Random House, 2007) ISBN
9780385612708
George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt, (Simon & Schuster, 2009) ISBN
9781416986713
Films and series
A Brief History of Time
Stephen Hawking's Universe
Horizon: The Hawking Paradox[55]
Masters of Science Fiction
Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe
A list of Hawking's publications through the year 2002 is available on
his website.

See also
Basic concepts of quantum mechanics
George Ellis
Gravitational singularity
Many-worlds interpretation, or flexiverse
Stephen Hawking in popular culture
Sydney Selwyn, another distinguished British scientist who suffered
from a progressively debilitating illness
Susskind–Hawking battle
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^ "Then, in 1999, his former wife published Music To Move The Stars:
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Further reading
Boslough, John (1985). Stephen Hawking's Universe. New York: Avon
Books. ISBN 0-380-70763-2. A layman's guide to Stephen Hawking.
Ferguson, Kitty (1991). Stephen Hawking: Quest For A Theory of
Everything. Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-553-29895-X.
Morris, Errol (Director). (1991) A Brief History of Time
[Documentary]. Triton Pictures.
Hawking, S. W. & Ellis, G. F. R. (1973). The Large Scale Structure of
Spacetime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
0-521-09906-4. . Highly influential in the field.
Hawking, S. W. & Israel, W. (1979). General relativity: an Einstein
centenary survey. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
0-521-22285-0. . A much cited centennial survey.
Misner, Charles; Thorne, Kip S. & Wheeler, John Archibald (1995).
Stephen Hawking A Biography. San Francisco: Greenwood Press. ISBN
978-0313323928.
Clifford A. Pickover, Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the
Great Minds Behind Them, Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN
978-0195336115
External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Stephen Hawking
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking's web site
Stephen Hawking's page on Academia.edu
Stephen Hawking at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Stephen Hawking", MacTutor
History of Mathematics archive, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Hawking.html
.
TED profile Talks: 2008: Stephen Hawking asks big questions about the
universe
Video: Stephen Hawking – discussion of two views of the universe
Videos: Stephen Hawking's concept of God, The role of God within the
no boundary cosmology and Imaginary time
Dated
Public Lectures, including debate with Roger Penrose 1996-2006
Hawking celebrates own brief history, 7 January 2002, BBC
"Leaping the Abyss", interview in Reason by Gregory Benford
2002-04-01
An audio interview with Stephen Hawking (MP3 format) from Hour 25
2002-03-24
Black holes turned "inside out", 22 July 2004, BBC
Return of the time lord, Interview about "A Brief History of Time", 27
September 2005, The Guardian.
Stephen Hawking touches on God and science – Physicist says Pope John
Paul told scientists not to study universe's origins msnbc. com 15
June 2006
Transcript of Stephen Hawking's lecture "The Origin Of The Universe"
in the Hebrew University In Jerusalem, 14 December 2006
Press Release from the Catholic League on misquote of Pope by Hawking
2006-06-16
BBC interview 2008-12-05
[show]v • d • eLucasian Professors of Mathematics

Isaac Barrow (1664) · Isaac Newton (1669) · William Whiston (1702) ·
Nicholas Saunderson (1711) · John Colson (1739) · Edward Waring (1760)
· Isaac Milner (1798) · Robert Woodhouse (1820) · Thomas Turton (1822)
· George Biddell Airy (1826) · Charles Babbage (1828) · Joshua King
(1839) · George Stokes (1849) · Joseph Larmor (1903) · Paul Dirac
(1932) · James Lighthill (1969) · Stephen Hawking (1979) · Michael
Green (2009)


[show]v • d • eWolf Prize in Physics Laureates

Chien-Shiung Wu (1978) · George Uhlenbeck/Giuseppe Occhialini (1979) ·
Michael Fisher & Leo Kadanoff & Kenneth G. Wilson (1980) · Freeman
Dyson & Gerardus 't Hooft & Victor Weisskopf (1981) · Leon M. Lederman
& Martin Lewis Perl (1982) · Erwin Hahn/Peter Hirsch/Theodore Maiman
(1983/4) · Conyers Herring & Philippe Nozieres (1984/5) · Mitchell
Feigenbaum/Albert J. Libchaber (1986) · Herbert Friedman/Bruno Rossi/
Riccardo Giacconi (1987) · Roger Penrose & Stephen Hawking (1988) ·
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes & David J. Thouless (1990) · Maurice Goldhaber
& Valentine Telegdi (1991) · Joseph H. Taylor, Jr. (1992) · Benoît
Mandelbrot (1993) · Vitaly Ginzburg/Yoichiro Nambu (1994/5) · John
Wheeler (1996/7) · Yakir Aharonov/Michael Berry (1998) · Dan Shechtman
(1999) · Raymond Davis, Jr. & Masatoshi Koshiba (2000) · Bertrand
Halperin & Anthony Leggett (2002/3) · Robert Brout & François Englert
& Peter Higgs (2004) · Daniel Kleppner (2005) · Albert Fert & Peter
Grünberg (2006/7)


Agriculture · Arts · Chemistry · Mathematics · Medicine · Physics

Persondata
NAME Hawking, Stephen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hawking, Stephen William
SHORT DESCRIPTION Theoretical physicist
DATE OF BIRTH 8 January 1942
PLACE OF BIRTH Oxford, England
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH


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Post by dennyreno
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan
Carl Sagan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Carl Sagan
Born November 9, 1934(1934-11-09)
Brooklyn, New York
Died December 20, 1996 (aged 62)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.
Residence United States[1]
Nationality American
Fields Astronomy and planetary science
Institutions Cornell University
Harvard University
Alma mater University of Chicago
Known for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
Cosmos
Voyager Golden Record
Pioneer plaque
Contact
Pale Blue Dot
Notable awards Oersted Medal (1990)
NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (twice)
Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction (1978)
National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal (1994)
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an
American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful
popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He
pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial
Intelligence (SETI).
He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-
writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which has been seen by more than 500
million people in over 60 countries.[2] A book to accompany the
program was also published. He also wrote the novel Contact, the basis
for the 1997 film of the same name. During his lifetime, Sagan
published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was
author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he
frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the
scientific method.
Contents [hide]
1 Early life and education
2 Career in science
3 Science advocacy
3.1 Billions and billions
3.2 SETI
3.3 UFO skepticism
4 Religious stance and social concerns
4.1 Nuclear weapons
5 Death and legacy
6 Awards and honors
7 Personal life
8 Publications
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links
11.1 Dated
[edit] Early life and education
Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn, New York,[3] to a Russian Jewish
family. His father, Sam Sagan, was a Russian immigrant garment worker;
his mother, Rachel Molly Gruber, a housewife. Carl was named in honor
of Rachel's biological mother, Chaiya Clara, "the mother she never
knew", in Sagan's words. Sagan graduated from Rahway High School in
Rahway, New Jersey in 1951.[4] He attended the University of Chicago,
where he participated in the Ryerson Astronomical Society,[5] received
a B.A. with general and special honors (1954), a B.S. (1955) and a
M.S. (1956) in physics, before earning a Ph.D. degree (1960) in
astronomy and astrophysics.[6] During his time as an undergraduate,
Sagan spent some time working in the laboratory of the geneticist H.
J. Muller. From 1960 to 1962 he was a Miller Fellow at the University
of California, Berkeley.
[edit] Career in science
From 1962 to 1968, Sagan worked at the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sagan lectured and did
research annually at Harvard University until 1968, when he moved to
Cornell University in New York. He became a full Professor at Cornell
in 1971, and he directed the Laboratory for Planetary Studies there.
From 1972 to 1981, Sagan was the Associate Director of the Center for
Radio Physics and Space Research at Cornell.
Sagan was a scientist connected with the American space program since
its inception. From the 1950s onward, he worked as an adviser to NASA.
One of his many duties during his tenure at the space agency included
briefing the Apollo astronauts before their flights to the Moon. Sagan
contributed to many of the robotic spacecraft missions that explored
the solar system during his lifetime, arranging experiments on many of
the expeditions. He conceived the idea of adding an unalterable and
universal message on spacecraft destined to leave the solar system
that could potentially be understood by any extraterrestrial
intelligence that might find it. Sagan assembled the first physical
message that was sent into space: a gold-anodized plaque, attached to
the space probe Pioneer 10, launched in 1972. Pioneer 11, also
carrying another copy of the plaque, was launched the following year.
He continued to refine his designs throughout his lifetime; the most
elaborate message he helped to develop and assemble was the Voyager
Golden Record that was sent out with the Voyager space probes in 1977.
Sagan often challenged the decisions to fund the Space Shuttle and
Space Station at the expense of further robotic missions.[7]
At Cornell University, Sagan taught a course on critical thinking
until his death in 1996 from a rare bone marrow disease. The course
had only a limited number of seats. Although hundreds of students
applied each year, only about 20 were chosen to attend each semester.
The course was discontinued immediately after Sagan's death, but it
was resumed by Dr. Yervant Terzian in 2000.
Sagan's contributions were central to the discovery of the high
surface temperatures of the planet Venus. In the early 1960s no one
knew for certain the basic conditions of that planet's surface, and
Sagan listed the possibilities in a report later depicted for
popularization in a Time-Life book, Planets. His own view was that
Venus was dry and very hot as opposed to the balmy paradise others had
imagined. He had investigated radio emissions from Venus and concluded
that there was a surface temperature of 500 °C (900 °F). As a visiting
scientist to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, he contributed to the
first Mariner missions to Venus, working on the design and management
of the project. Mariner 2 confirmed his conclusions on the surface
conditions of Venus in 1962.
Sagan was among the first to hypothesize that Saturn's moon Titan
might possess oceans of liquid compounds on its surface and that
Jupiter's moon Europa might possess subsurface oceans of water. This
would make Europa potentially habitable for life.[8] Europa's
subsurface ocean of water was later indirectly confirmed by the
spacecraft Galileo. Sagan also helped solve the mystery of the reddish
haze seen on Titan, revealing that it is composed of complex organic
molecules constantly raining down onto the moon's surface.
He further contributed insights regarding the atmospheres of Venus and
Jupiter as well as seasonal changes on Mars. Sagan established that
the atmosphere of Venus is extremely hot and dense with pressures
increasing steadily all the way down to the surface. He also perceived
global warming as a growing, man-made danger and likened it to the
natural development of Venus into a hot, life-hostile planet through a
kind of runaway greenhouse effect. Sagan and his Cornell colleague
Edwin Ernest Salpeter speculated about life in Jupiter's clouds, given
the planet's dense atmospheric composition rich in organic molecules.
He studied the observed color variations on Mars’ surface and
concluded that they were not seasonal or vegetational changes as most
believed but shifts in surface dust caused by windstorms.
He is also the 1994 recipient of the Public Welfare Medal, the highest
award of the National Academy of Sciences for "distinguished
contributions in the application of science to the public welfare."[9]
[edit] Science advocacy
Planetary Society members at the organization's founding. Carl Sagan
is seated on the right.Sagan's ability to convey his ideas allowed
many people to better understand the cosmos—simultaneously emphasizing
the value and worthiness of the human race, and the relative
insignificance of the earth in comparison to the universe. He
delivered the 1977 series of Royal Institution Christmas Lectures at
the Royal Institution in London. He hosted and, with Ann Druyan, co-
wrote and co-produced the highly popular thirteen-part PBS television
series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage modeled on Jacob Bronowski's The
Ascent of Man.
Cosmos covered a wide range of scientific subjects including the
origin of life and a perspective of our place in the universe. The
series was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980,
winning an Emmy and a Peabody Award. It has been broadcast in more
than 60 countries and seen by over 500 million people,[2][10] making
it the most widely watched PBS program in history.[11]
Sagan also wrote books to popularize science, such as Cosmos, which
reflected and expanded upon some of the themes of A Personal Voyage,
and became the best-selling science book ever published in English;
[12] The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human
Reflections on the Romance of Science. Sagan also wrote the best-
selling science fiction novel Contact, but did not live to see the
book's 1997 motion picture adaptation, which starred Jodie Foster and
won the 1998 Hugo Award.
Pale Blue Dot: Earth is a bright pixel when photographed from "Voyager
1" six billion kilometres out (past Pluto). Sagan encouraged NASA to
generate this image.He wrote a sequel to Cosmos, Pale Blue Dot: A
Vision of the Human Future in Space, which was selected as a notable
book of 1995 by The New York Times. He appeared on PBS' Charlie Rose
program in January 1995.[13] Sagan also wrote an introduction for the
bestselling book by Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time. Sagan
was also known for his popularization of science, his efforts to
increase scientific understanding among the general public, and his
positions in favor of scientific skepticism and against pseudoscience,
such as his debunking of the Betty and Barney Hill abduction. To mark
the tenth anniversary of Sagan's passing, David Morrison, a former
student of Sagan, recalled "Sagan's immense contributions to planetary
research, the public understanding of science, and the skeptical
movement" in Skeptical Inquirer.[14]
Sagan erroneously predicted in January 1991 that so much smoke from
the Kuwaiti oil fires "might get so high as to ...
read more »
dennyreno
2009-12-27 11:19:48 UTC
Permalink



Arthur c clark a http://youtu.be/D_oTMRxyhec
Carl Sagan - God, the Universe, & Everything http://youtu.be/6O9cYTZXekA
A http://youtu.be/GeBdd4c_dNY
Kachia dolls
http://youtu.be/-0IXmdPo_xM
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