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Sir Arthur C. Clarke, CBE
Arthur C. Clarke at his home office in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 March
Born 16 December 1917(1917-12-16)
Minehead, Somerset, England, United Kingdom
Died 19 March 2008 (aged 90)
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Pen name Charles Willis,
Occupation Author, Inventor
Nationality British and
Genres Hard science fiction
Notable work(s) Childhood's End
2001: A Space Odyssey
Rendezvous with Rama
The Fountains of Paradise
Spouse(s) Marilyn Mayfield (1953-1964)
H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Lord Dunsany, Olaf Stapledon
Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS (16 December
1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction author, inventor,
and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written
in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which
also produced the film of the same name; and as a host and commentator
in the British television series Mysterious World.
Clarke served in the Royal Air Force as a radar instructor and
technician from 1941-1946, proposed satellite communication systems in
1945 which won him the Franklin Institute Stuart Ballantine Gold
Medal in 1963. He was the chairman of the British Interplanetary
Society from 1947-1950 and again in 1953. Later, he helped fight
for the preservation of lowland gorillas.
Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka in 1956 largely to pursue his interest
in scuba diving, and lived there until his death. He was knighted
by the British monarchy in 1998, and was awarded Sri Lanka's
highest civil honour, Sri Lankabhimanya, in 2005.
1.1 Writing career
1.2 Later years
2 Position on religion
3 Views on paranormal phenomena
4 Themes, style, and influences
5 Adapted screenplays
5.1 2001: A Space Odyssey
5.3 Rendezvous with Rama
6 Beyond 2001
7 Essays and short stories
8 Concept of the geostationary communications satellite
9 Awards, honours and other recognition
10 Partial bibliography
10.1 Select Novels
10.2 Short story collections
11 See also
12 Cited references
13 External links
Clarke was born in Minehead, Somerset, England. As a boy he
enjoyed stargazing and reading old American science fiction pulp
magazines. After secondary school and studying at Huish's Grammar
School, Taunton, he was unable to afford a university education and
got a job as an auditor in the pensions section of the Board of
During the Second World War he served in the Royal Air Force as a
radar specialist and was involved in the early warning radar defence
system, which contributed to the RAF's success during the Battle of
Britain. Clarke spent most of his wartime service working on Ground
Controlled Approach (GCA) radar as documented in the semi-
autobiographical Glide Path, his only non-science-fiction novel.
Although GCA did not see much practical use in the war, it proved
vital to the Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 after several years of
development. Clarke initially served in the ranks, and was a Corporal
instructor on radar at No 9 Radio School, RAF Yatesbury. He was
commissioned as a Pilot Officer (Technical Branch) on 27 May 1943.
He was promoted Flying Officer on 27 November 1943. He was
appointed chief training instructor at RAF Honiley and was demobilised
with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After the war he earned a first-
class degree in mathematics and physics at King's College London.
In the postwar years, Clarke became the Chairman of the British
Interplanetary Society from 1946-1947  and again from 1951-1953
. Although he was not the originator of the concept of
geostationary satellites, one of his most important contributions may
be his idea that they would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
advanced this idea in a paper privately circulated among the core
technical members of the BIS in 1945. The concept was published in
Wireless World in October of that year. Clarke also wrote
a number of non-fiction books describing the technical details and
societal implications of rocketry and space flight. The most notable
of these may be The Exploration of Space (1951) and The Promise of
Space (1968). In recognition of these contributions the geostationary
orbit 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) above the equator is officially
recognized by the International Astronomical Union as a Clarke Orbit.
On a trip to Florida in 1953 Clarke met and quickly married
Marilyn Mayfield, a 22-year-old American divorcee with a young son.
They separated permanently after six months, although the divorce was
not finalised until 1964. "The marriage was incompatible from the
beginning", says Clarke. Clarke never remarried but was close to
Leslie Ekanayake, who died in 1977. In his biography of Stanley
Kubrick, John Baxter cites Clarke's homosexuality as a reason why
Clarke relocated, due to more tolerant laws in regards to
homosexuality in Sri Lanka. Journalists who inquired of Clarke
whether he was gay were told, "No, merely mildly cheerful."
However, Michael Moorcock has written
Everyone knew he was gay. In the 1950s I'd go out drinking with his
boyfriend. We met his proteges, western and eastern, and their
families: people who had only the most generous praise for his
kindness. Self-absorbed he might be, and a teetotaller, but an
impeccable gent through and through.
Moorcook's assertion is not supported by other reports, although in an
interview in the July 1986 issue of Playboy magazine, Clarke
stated "Of course. Who hasn't?" when asked if he has had bisexual
Clarke also maintained a vast collection of manuscripts and personal
memoirs, maintained by his brother Fred Clarke in Taunton, Somerset,
England, and referred to as the "Clarkives." Clarke has said that some
of his private diaries will not be published until 30 years after his
death. When asked why they were sealed up, he answered "'Well, there
might be all sorts of embarrassing things in them".
 Writing career
While Clarke had a few stories published in fanzines, between 1937 and
1945, his first professional sales appeared in Astounding Science
Fiction in 1946: "Loophole" was published in April, while "Rescue
Party", his first sale, was published in May. Along with his writing
Clarke briefly worked as Assistant Editor of Science Abstracts (1949)
before devoting himself to writing full-time from 1951 onward. Clarke
also contributed to the Dan Dare series published in Eagle, and his
first three published novels were written for children.
Clarke corresponded with C. S. Lewis in the 1940s and 1950s and they
once met in an Oxford pub, The Eastgate, to discuss science fiction
and space travel. Clarke, after Lewis's death, voiced great praise for
him, saying the Ransom Trilogy was one of the few works of science
fiction that could be considered literature.
In 1948 he wrote "The Sentinel" for a BBC competition. Though the
story was rejected it changed the course of Clarke's career. Not only
was it the basis for A Space Odyssey, but "The Sentinel" also
introduced a more mystical and cosmic element to Clarke's work. Many
of Clarke's later works feature a technologically advanced but still-
prejudiced mankind being confronted by a superior alien intelligence.
In the cases of The City and the Stars (and its original version,
Against the Fall of Night), Childhood's End, and the 2001 series, this
encounter produces a conceptual breakthrough that accelerates humanity
into the next stage of its evolution. In Clarke's authorized
biography, Neil McAleer writes that: "many readers and critics still
consider [Childhood's End] Arthur C. Clarke's best novel."
Clarke lived in Sri Lanka from 1956 until his death in 2008, having
emigrated there when it was still called Ceylon, first in Unawatuna on
the south coast, and then in Colombo. Clarke held citizenship of
both the UK and Sri Lanka. He was an avid scuba diver and a member
of the Underwater Explorers Club. Living in Sri Lanka afforded him the
opportunity to visit the ocean year-round. It also inspired the locale
for his novel The Fountains of Paradise in which he described a space
elevator. This, he believed, ultimately will be his legacy, more so
than geostationary satellites, once space elevators make rocket based
access to space obsolete.
His many predictions culminated in 1958 when he began a series of
essays in various magazines that eventually became Profiles of the
Future published in book form in 1962. A timetable up to the year
2100 describes inventions and ideas including such things as a "global
library" for 2005.
 Later years
In the early 1970s Clarke signed a three-book publishing deal, a
record for a science-fiction writer at the time. The first of the
three was Rendezvous with Rama in 1973, which won him all the main
genre awards and has spawned sequels that, along with the 2001 series,
formed the backbone of his later career.
In 1975 Clarke's short story "The Star" was not included in a new high
school English textbook in Sri Lanka because of concerns that it might
offend Roman Catholics even though it had already been selected. The
same textbook also caused controversy because it replaced
Shakespeare's work with that of Bob Dylan, John Lennon and Isaac
In the 1980s Clarke became well known to many for his television
programmes Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World, Arthur C. Clarke's
World of Strange Powers and Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious Universe. In
1986 he was named a Grand Master by the Science Fiction Writers of
America. In 1988 he was diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, having
originally contracted polio in 1959, and needed to use a wheelchair
most of the time thereafter. Sir Arthur C Clarke was for many
years a Vice Patron of the British Polio Fellowship.
In the 1989 Queen's Birthday Honours Clarke was appointed Commander of
the Order of the British Empire (CBE) "for services to British
cultural interests in Sri Lanka". The same year he became the
first Chancellor of the International Space University, serving from
1989 to 2004 and he also served as Chancellor of Moratuwa University
in Sri Lanka from 1979 to 2002.
In 1994, Clarke appeared in a science fiction film; he portrayed
himself in the telefilm Without Warning, an American production about
an apocalyptic alien first contact scenario presented in the form of a
On 26 May 2000 he was made a Knight Bachelor "for services to
literature" at a ceremony in Colombo. The award of a
knighthood had been announced in the 1998 New Year Honours,
but investiture with the award had been delayed, at Clarke's request,
because of an accusation, by the British tabloid The Sunday Mirror, of
paedophilia. The charge was subsequently found to be baseless
by the Sri Lankan police. According to The Daily Telegraph
(London), the Mirror subsequently published an apology, and Clarke
chose not to sue for defamation. Clarke was then duly
Although he and his home were unharmed by the 2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake tsunami, his "Arthur C. Clarke Diving School" at Hikkaduwa
was destroyed. He made humanitarian appeals, and the Arthur C. Clarke
Foundation worked towards a better disaster notification systems.
The school has since been rebuilt.
In September 2007, he provided a video greeting for NASA's Cassini
probe's flyby of Iapetus (which plays an important role in 2001: A
Space Odyssey). In December 2007 on his 90th birthday, Clarke
recorded a video message to his friends and fans bidding them good-bye.
Clarke died in Sri Lanka on 19 March 2008 after suffering from
breathing problems, according to Rohan de Silva, one of his aides.
Only a few days before he died, he had reviewed the manuscript of his
final work, The Last Theorem, on which he had collaborated by e-mail
with his contemporary Frederik Pohl. The book was published after
Clarke was buried in Colombo in traditional Sri Lankan fashion on 22
March. His younger brother, Fred Clarke, and his Sri Lankan adoptive
family were among the thousands in attendance.
 Position on religion
Themes of religion and spirituality appear in much of Clarke's
writing, though his position on "Religion" is ultimately somewhat
complicated. Although his œuvre was not explicitly religious — “Any
path to knowledge is a path to God — or Reality, whichever word one
prefers to use”, he said — he did give Man’s journey a mystical
significance and a quasi-religious intensity, and described
himself as 'fascinated by the concept of God'. When he entered the
RAF, he insisted that his dog tags be marked "pantheist" rather than
the default, Church of England. In 2000, Clarke told the Sri
Lankan newspaper, The Island, "I don't believe in God or an
afterlife," and he identifies himself as an atheist. He was
honoured as a Humanist Laureate in the International Academy of
Humanism. He has also described himself as a "crypto-Buddhist",
insisting that Buddhism is not a religion. He displayed little
interest about religion early in his life, for example, only
discovering a few months after marrying his wife, that she had strong
In a three-day "dialogue on man and his world" with Alan Watts, Clarke
stated that he was biased against religion and said that he could not
forgive religions for what he perceived as their inability to prevent
atrocities and wars over time.
In a reflection of the dialogue where he more broadly stated
"mankind", his introduction to the penultimate episode of Mysterious
World, entitled, Strange Skies, Clarke said, "I sometimes think that
the universe is a machine designed for the perpetual astonishment of
Near the very end of that same episode, the last segment of which
covered the Star of Bethlehem, he stated that his favourite theory
was that it might be a pulsar. Given that pulsars were discovered in
the interval between his writing the short story, The Star (1955), and
making Mysterious World (1980), and given the more recent discovery of
pulsar PSR B1913+16, he said, "How romantic, if even now, we can hear
the dying voice of a star, which heralded the Christian era."
Clarke left written instructions for a funeral that stated:
"Absolutely no religious rites of any kind, relating to any religious
faith, should be associated with my funeral."
A famous quote of Clarke's is often cited: "One of the great tragedies
of mankind is that morality has been hijacked by religion."
 Views on paranormal phenomena
Early in his career, Clarke had a fascination with the paranormal and
stated that it was part of the inspiration for his novel Childhood's
End. Citing the numerous promising paranormal claims that were shown
to be fraudulent, Clarke described his earlier openness to the
paranormal having turned to being "an almost total skeptic" by the
time of his 1992 biography. During interviews, both in 1993 and
2004–2005, he stated that he did not believe in reincarnation, citing
that there was no mechanism to make it possible, though he stated "I'm
always paraphrasing J. B. S. Haldane: 'The universe is not only
stranger than we imagine, it's stranger than we can imagine.'"
(He loved quoting Haldane.) He described the idea of reincarnation
as fascinating, but favored a finite existence.
Clarke was well known for his television series investigating
paranormal phenomena Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World, Arthur C.
Clarke's Mysterious Universe and Arthur C. Clarke's World of Strange
Powers, enough to be parodied in an episode of The Goodies in which
his show is canceled after it is claimed he does not exist.
 Themes, style, and influences
Clarke's work is marked by an optimistic view of science empowering
mankind's exploration of the Solar System, and the world's oceans.
Clarke's images of the future often feature a Utopian setting with
highly developed technology, ecology, and society, based on the
author's ideals. His early published stories would usually feature
the extrapolation of a technological innovation or scientific
breakthrough into the underlying decadence of his own society.
"The Sentinel" (1948) introduced a religious theme to Clarke's work, a
theme that he later explored more deeply in The City and the Stars
(and its earlier version, Against the Fall of Night). Surprisingly for
a writer who is often held up as an example of hard science fiction's
obsession with technology, three of Clarke's novels have this as a
theme. Another theme of "The Sentinel" was the notion that the
evolution of an intelligent species would eventually make them
something close to gods, which was also explored in his 1953 novel
Childhood's End. He also briefly touched upon this idea in his novel
Imperial Earth. This idea of transcendence through evolution seems to
have been influenced by Olaf Stapledon, who wrote a number of books
dealing with this theme. Clarke has said of Stapledon's 1930 book Last
and First Men that "No other book had a greater influence on my
life ... [It] and its successor Star Maker (1937) are the twin summits
of [Stapledon's] literary career".
Clarke also took a major interest in "Inner Space", which can be seen
in his stories, Big Game Hunt, The Deep Range and The Shining Ones, as
well as Dolphin Island.
 Adapted screenplays
 2001: A Space Odyssey
Clarke's first venture into film was the Stanley Kubrick directed
2001: A Space Odyssey. Kubrick and Clarke had met in New York City in
1964 to discuss the possibility of a collaborative film project. As
the idea developed, it was decided that the story for the film was to
be loosely based on Clarke's short story "The Sentinel", written in
1948 as an entry in a BBC short story competition. Originally, Clarke
was going to write the screenplay for the film, but Kubrick suggested
during one of their brainstorming meetings that before beginning on
the actual script, they should let their imaginations soar free by
writing a novel first, which the film would be based on upon its
completion. "This is more or less the way it worked out, though toward
the end, novel and screenplay were being written simultaneously, with
feedback in both directions. Thus I rewrote some sections after seeing
the movie rushes -- a rather expensive method of literary creation,
which few other authors can have enjoyed." The novel ended up
being published a few months after the release of the movie.
Due to the hectic schedule of the film's production, Kubrick and
Clarke had difficulty collaborating on the book. Clarke completed a
draft of the novel at the end of 1964 with the plan to publish in 1965
in advance of the film's release in 1966. After many delays the film
was released in the spring of 1968, before the book was completed. The
book was credited to Clarke alone. Clarke later complained that this
had the effect of making the book into a novelisation, that Kubrick
had manipulated circumstances to downplay Clarke's authorship. For
these and other reasons, the details of the story differ slightly from
the book to the movie. The film contains little explanation for the
events taking place. Clarke, on the other hand, wrote thorough
explanations of "cause and effect" for the events in the novel. James
Randi later recounted that upon seeing 2001 for the first time, Clarke
left the movie theatre during the first break crying because he was so
upset about how the movie had turned out. Despite their
differences, both film and novel were well received.
In 1972, Clarke published The Lost Worlds of 2001, which included his
accounts of the production, and alternate versions, of key scenes. The
"special edition" of the novel A Space Odyssey (released in 1999)
contains an introduction by Clarke in which he documents the events
leading to the release of the novel and film.
In 1982 Clarke continued the 2001 epic with a sequel, 2010: Odyssey
Two. This novel was also made into a film, 2010, directed by Peter
Hyams for release in 1984. Because of the political environment in
America in the 1980s, the film presents a Cold War theme, with the
looming tensions of nuclear warfare not featured in the novel. The
film was not considered to be as revolutionary or artistic as 2001,
but the reviews were still positive.
Clarke's email correspondence with Hyams was published in 1984.
 Titled The Odyssey File: The Making of 2010, and co-authored with
Hyams, it illustrates his fascination with the then-pioneering medium
of email and its use for them to communicate on an almost daily basis
at the time of planning and production of the film while living on
different continents. The book also includes Clarke's list of the best
science-fiction films ever made.
Clarke appeared in the film, first as the man feeding the pigeons
while Dr. Heywood Floyd is engaged in a conversation in front of the
White House. Later, in the hospital scene with David Bowman's mother,
an image of the cover of Time portrays Clarke as the American
President and Kubrick as the Russian Premier.
 Rendezvous with Rama
Clarke's award-winning 1972 novel Rendezvous with Rama was optioned
many years ago, but is currently in "development hell". Director David
Fincher is attached to the project, together with actor Morgan Freeman.
 Beyond 2001
2001: A Space Odyssey, Clarke's most famous work, goes well beyond the
1968 movie. Its 1984 sequel, 2010 was based on Clarke's 1982 novel,
2010: Odyssey Two. There were two further sequels that have not been
adapted to the cinema: 2061: Odyssey Three and 3001: The Final
In 2061, Halley's Comet swings back to nearby Earth, and Clarke uses
the event as an excuse to take an aged Dr. Heywood Floyd on a romp
through the solar system, visiting the comet before crash-landing on
Europa, where he discovers the fates of Dave Bowman, HAL 9000, and the
Europan life-forms which have been protected by the Monoliths.
With 3001: The Final Odyssey, Clarke returns to examine the character
of astronaut Frank Poole, who was killed outside Discovery by HAL in
the original novel and film, but whose body was revived in the year
 Essays and short stories
Most of Clarke's essays (from 1934 to 1998) can be found in the book
Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! (2000). Most of his short stories can
be found in the book The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (2001).
Another collection of early essays was published in The View from
Serendip (1977), which also included one short piece of fiction, "When
the Twerms Came". He wrote short stories under the pseudonyms of E. G.
O'Brien and Charles Willis.
 Concept of the geostationary communications satellite
Geostationary orbitMain article: Geostationary orbit
Clarke's most important scientific contribution may be his idea that
geostationary satellites would be ideal telecommunications relays. He
described this concept in a paper titled Extra-Terrestrial Relays —
Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?, published in
Wireless World in October 1945. The geostationary orbit is now
sometimes known as the Clarke Orbit or the Clarke Belt in his honour.
However, it is not clear that this article was actually the
inspiration for the modern telecommunications satellite. John R.
Pierce, of Bell Labs, arrived at the idea independently in 1954 and he
was actually involved in the Echo satellite and Telstar projects.
Moreover, Pierce stated that the idea was "in the air" at the time and
certain to be developed regardless of Clarke's publication. In an
interview given shortly before his death, Clarke was asked whether he
thought communications satellites would become important; he replied
"I'm often asked why I didn't try to patent the idea of communications
satellites. My answer is always, ‘A patent is really a license to be
Though different from Clarke's idea of telecom relay, the idea of
communicating with satellites in geostationary orbit itself had been
described earlier. For example, the concept of geostationary
satellites was described in Hermann Oberth's 1923 book Die Rakete zu
den Planetenräumen (The Rocket into Interplanetary Space) and then
the idea of radio communication with those satellites in Herman
Potočnik's (written under the pseudonym Hermann Noordung) 1928 book
Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-Motor (The
Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor) sections: Providing for
Long Distance Communications and Safety and (possibly referring to
the idea of relaying messages via satellite, but not that 3 would be
optimal) Observing and Researching the Earth's Surface published
in Berlin. Clarke acknowledged the earlier concept in his book
Profiles of the Future.
 Awards, honours and other recognition
He won the UNESCO-Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science in
Following the release of 2001, Clarke became much in demand as a
commentator on science and technology, especially at the time of the
Apollo space program. The fame of 2001 was enough to get the Command
Module of the Apollo 13 craft named "Odyssey".
Shared a 1969 Academy Award nomination with Stanley Kubrick in the
category, Best Writing, Story and Screenplay - Written Directly for
the Screen for 2001: A Space Odyssey.
In 1986, Clarke provided a grant to fund the prize money (initially
£1,000) for the Arthur C. Clarke Award for the best science fiction
novel published in the United Kingdom in the previous year. In 2001
the prize was increased to £2001, and its value now matches the year
(e.g., £2005 in 2005).
Clarke received a CBE in 1989, and was knighted in 2000.
 Clarke's health did not allow him to travel to London to receive
the honour personally from the Queen, so the United Kingdom's High
Commissioner to Sri Lanka invested him as a Knight Bachelor at a
ceremony in Colombo.
In 1994, Clarke was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize by law professor
In 2000, he was named a Distinguished Supporter of the British
The 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter is named in honour of Sir Arthur's
In 2003, Sir Arthur was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of
Technology where he appeared on stage via a 3-D hologram with a group
of old friends which included Jill Tarter, Neil Armstrong, Lewis
Branscomb, Charles Townes, Freeman Dyson, Bruce Murray and Scott
In 2004, Sir Arthur was awarded the Heinlein Award for outstanding
achievement in hard or science-oriented science fiction.
In 2005 he lent his name to the inaugural Sir Arthur Clarke Awards —
dubbed "the Space Oscars". His brother attended the awards ceremony,
and presented an award specially chosen by Arthur (and not by the
panel of judges who chose the other awards) to the British
On 14 November 2005 Sri Lanka awarded Arthur C. Clarke its highest
civilian award, the Sri Lankabhimanya (The Pride of Sri Lanka), for
his contributions to science and technology and his commitment to his
Sir Arthur was the Honorary Board Chair of the Institute for
Cooperation in Space, founded by Carol Rosin, and served on the Board
of Governors of the National Space Society, a space advocacy
organisation originally founded by Dr. Wernher von Braun.
An asteroid was named in Clarke's honour, 4923 Clarke (the number was
assigned prior to, and independently of, the name - 2001, however
appropriate, was unavailable, having previously been assigned to
A species of ceratopsian dinosaur, Serendipaceratops arthurcclarkei,
discovered in Inverloch in Australia.
The Learning Resource Centre at Richard Huish College, Taunton, which
Clarke attended when it was Huish Grammar School, is named after him.
Clarke was a distinguished vice-president of the H. G. Wells Society,
being strongly influenced by H. G. Wells as a science-fiction writer.
 Partial bibliography
Main article: List of works by Arthur C. Clarke
 Select Novels
Prelude to Space (1951)
The Sands of Mars (1951)
Childhood's End (1953)
The City and the Stars (1956)
A Fall of Moondust (1961) (Hugo nominee, 1963)
2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Rendezvous with Rama (1972) (BSFA and Nebula Awards winner, 1973;
Hugo, Campbell, and Locus Awards winner, 1974)
A Meeting with Medusa (Nebula Award for best novella) (1972)
Imperial Earth (1975)
The Fountains of Paradise (1979) (Hugo Award winner, BSFA nominee, 1979
; and Nebula Award winner, Locus Award nominee, 1980)
2010: Odyssey Two (1982) (Hugo and Locus Awards nominee, 1983)
The Songs of Distant Earth (1986)
2061: Odyssey Three (1987)
3001: The Final Odyssey (1997)
The Light of Other Days (2000) (with Stephen Baxter)
 Short story collections
Expedition to Earth (1953)
Reach for Tomorrow (1956)
Tales from the White Hart (1957)
The Other Side of the Sky (1958)
Tales of Ten Worlds (1962)
The Nine Billion Names of God (1967)
The Wind from the Sun (1972)
The Best of Arthur C. Clarke (1973)
The Sentinel (1983)
The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (2001)
The Exploration of Space. New York: Harper, 1951
Voices from the Sky: Previews of the Coming Space Age. New York:
Harper & Row, 1965
Astounding Days: A Science Fictional Autobiography. London: Gollancz,
Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! : Collected Works 1934-1998. New York:
St. Martin’s Press, 1999
The View From Serendip. Random House. ISBN 0394417968. 1977
 See also
Arthur C. Clarke Award
Clarke's three laws
 Cited references
^ a b "Arthur C. Clarke". books and writers. 2003. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/aclarke.htm.
^ "Mysterious World" (1980) at the Internet Movie Database
^ Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World on YouTube. Retrieved on 23
^ The 1945 Proposal by Arthur C. Clarke for Geostationary Satellite
^ The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation
^ Moon Miners' Manifesto: Arthur C Clarke nominated for Nobel
^ Yahoomc: test
^ Campaign for gorilla-friendly mobiles| News | This is London
^ "Remembering Arthur C. Clarke".
^ a b c "The new knight of science fiction". BBC News (BBC). January
1, 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/43739.stm. Retrieved 26
^ a b c "Arthur C Clarke knighted". BBC News (BBC). May 26, 2000.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/765385.stm. Retrieved 26 August
^ a b Government Notification—National Honours, November 2005.
Retrieved on 20 October 2008
^ "Science fiction author Arthur C Clarke dies aged 90". The Times. 19
March 2008. http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article3579120.ece.
Retrieved 2008-03-19. "Science fiction writer Sir Arthur C Clarke has
died aged 90 in his adopted home of Sri Lanka, it was confirmed
^ London Gazette: no. 34321, p. 5798, 8 September 1936. Retrieved on
^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36089, pp. 3162–3163, 9 July 1943.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36271, p. 5289, 30 November c1943.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ Journal of the British Interplanetary Society Vol 6 (1946)
^ Parkinson, B. (2008) (Ed.)'Interplanetary - A History of the British
Interplanetary Society', p.93
^ "Arthur C. Clarke Extra Terrestrial Relays".
^ "Peacetime Uses for V2" (JPG). Wireless World. February 1945.Loading Image...
^ "Extra-Terrestrial Relays Can Rocket Stations Give World-wide Radio
Coverage?". Wireless World. October 1945. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/clarke/ww2.asp.
^ "Clarke Foundation Biography". http://www.clarkefoundation.org/acc/biography.php.
^ Arthur C Clarke - a quick summary
^ a b c d e f McAleer, Neil. "Arthur C. Clarke: The Authorized
Biography", Contemporary Books, Chicago, 1992. ISBN 0-8092-3720-2
^ Baxter, John (1997). Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. New York: Carroll
& Graff. p. 203. ISBN 0786704853. "But Clarke and Kubrick made a
match. [...] Both had a streak of homoeroticism[...]"
^ a b c d "Arthur C. Clarke, Premier Science Fiction Writer, Dies at
90.". New York Times. 18 March 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/18/books/18cnd-clarke.html?hp.
Retrieved 2008-03-19. "Arthur C. Clarke, a writer whose seamless blend
of scientific expertise and poetic imagination helped usher in the
space age, died early Wednesday in Colombo, Sri Lanka, where he had
lived since 1956. He was 90. He had battled debilitating post-polio
syndrome for years."
^ Michael Moorcock (2008-03-22). "Brave New Worlds". The Guardian.
^ NNDB page on Clarke
^ Clarke's interview in Playboy magazine
^ Man on the moon
^ "Happy Birthday Sir Arthur C. Clarke!". Sunday Observer. 2005-12-11.
^ Personal e-mail from Sir Arthur Clarke to Jerry Stone, Director of
the Sir Arthur Clarke Awards, 1 November 2006
^ "Chart of the Future". Loading Image...
^ SFWA Grand Masters
^ British Polio Fellowship - Home
^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 51772, p. 16, 16 June 1989.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ a b Letters Patent were issued by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
on 16 March 2000 to authorise this. (see London Gazette: no. 55796, p.
3167, 21 March 2000. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.)
^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 54993, p. 2, 30 December 1997.
Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ It doesn't do any harm ... most of the damage comes from fuss made.
Sunday Mirror, Feb 1, 1998 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_19980201/ai_n14474884
Retrieved on 2008-03-24
^ Smirk of a pervert and a liar. Sunday Mirror, Feb 8, 1998
Retrieved on 2008-03-24
^ "Sci-fi novelist cleared of sex charges". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/74938.stm.
^ "Child sex file could close on sci-fi writer". Irish Examiner.
^ "Sir Arthur C Clarke". The Daily Telegraph. 20 March 2008.
^ Sir Arthur C. Clarke (February 2005), "Letter from Sri Lanka", Wired
(San Francisco: Condé Nast) 13.02, ISSN 1059-1028,
http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.02/letter.html, retrieved August
^ Video greeting to NASA JPL by Arthur C. Clarke. Retrieved 24
^ "Sir Arthur C Clarke 90th Birthday reflections". 2007-12-10.
^ Writer Arthur C Clarke dies at 90, BBC News, 18 March 2008
^ Sci-fi guru Arthur C. Clarke dies at 90, MSNBC, 18 March 2008
^ "Arthur C. Clarke: The Wired Words". Wired Blog Network. 18 March
^ Pohl, Frederik (January 5, 2009). "Sir Arthur and I". The Way the
Future Blogs. http://www.thewaythefutureblogs.com/2009/01/sir-arthur-and-i/.
Retrieved January 22, 2009.
^ "Last odyssey for sci-fi guru Arthur C. Clarke". Agence France-
Presse. 19 March 2008. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jWab-TXO_DymFmU13CzSNVObE6FQ.
Retrieved 2008-03-20. "Just a few days before he died, Clarke reviewed
the final manuscript of his latest novel, "The Last Theorem" co-
written with American author Frederik Pohl, which is to be published
later this year."
^ "Sci-fi writer Clarke laid to rest". BBC. 2008-03-22.
^ "Sir Arthur C. Clarke: The Times obituary". Times Online.
^ "…Stanley [Kubrick] is a Jew and I'm an atheist". Clarke quoted in
Jeromy Agel (Ed.) (1970). The Making of Kubrick's 2001: p.306
^ The International Academy Of Humanism at the website of the Council
for Secular Humanism. (Retrieved 18 October 2007).
^ a b Cherry, Matt (1999). "God, Science, and Delusion: A Chat With
Arthur C. Clarke". Free Inquiry (Amherst, NY: Council for Secular
Humanism) 19 (2). ISSN 0272-0701. http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=clarke_19_2.
^ Clarke, Arthur C.; Watts, Alan (January). At the Interface:
Technology and Mysticism. 19. Chicago, Ill.: HMH Publishing. 94. ISBN
0032-1478. OCLC 3534353.
^ a b "Mysterious world strange skies 3 of 3". YouTube.
^ "TIME Quotes of the Day". 2008-03-19. http://www.time.com/time/quotes/0,26174,1723669,00.html.
^ Jeff Greenwald (July/August 1993), "Arthur C. Clarke On Life", Wired
(San Francisco: Condé Nast) 1.03, ISSN 1059-1028,
http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/1.03/clarke.html, retrieved August
^ José Cordeiro (July/August 2008), The Futurist Interviews Sir.
Arthur C. Clarke, 42(4), Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, ISSN
0016-3317, http://online.printmailcom.com/drupal/node/852, retrieved
August 16, 2009
^ Andrew Robinson (October 10, 1997), "The cosmic godfather", Times
Higher Education (London: TSL Education Ltd.), ISSN 0049-3929,
retrieved August 17, 2009
^ Guy Riddihough, Review of The City and the Stars in Science , (4
July 2008) Vol. 321. no. 5885, pp. 42 - 43 DOI: 10.1126/science.
1161705: What marks the book out are Clarke's sweeping vistas, grand
ideas, and ultimately optimistic view of humankind's future in the
^ "Arthur C. Clarke Quotes". http://www.testermanscifi.org/ClarkeQuotesPart2.html.
^ Arthur C. Clarke, 90; scientific visionary, acclaimed writer of
'2001: A Space Odyssey'
^ "Randi shares some stories regarding his friend Arthur C. Clarke and
makes a comparison of Stanley Kubrick to Steve Jobs".
http://itricks.com/randishow/?p=21. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
^ "Box Office Mojo". http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=2001.htm.
^ "Movies. Go.com". http://movies.go.com/2001-a-space-odyssey/d825668/scifi.
^ "Amazon.com". http://www.amazon.com/dp/0451457994/. Retrieved
^ Arthur C. Clarke and Peter Hyams. The Odyssey File. Ballantine
^ Excerpt from The Odyssey File.
^ "Extra-Terrestrial Relays — Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio
Coverage?". Arthur C. Clark. October 1945.
^ "Final Thoughts from Sir Arthur C. Clarke". March 2008.
http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/mar08/6075. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
^ Kelso, Dr. T. S. (1998-05-01). "Basics of the Geostationary Orbit".
Satellite Times. http://celestrak.com/columns/v04n07/. Retrieved
^ "Providing for Long Distance Communications and Safety".
^ "Observing and Researching the Earth's Surface".
^ Clarke, Arthur C. (1984). Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry Into
the Limits of the Possible. New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart &
Wilson. pp. 205n. ISBN 0030697832. "INTELSAT, the International
Telecommunications Satellite Organisation which operates the global
system, has started calling it the Clarke orbit. Flattered though I
am, honesty compels me to point out that the concept of such an orbit
predates my 1945 paper 'Extra Terrestrial Relays' by at least twenty
years. I didn't invent it, but only annexed it."
^ Summary List of UNESCO Prizes: List of Prizewinners, p. 12
^ Peebles, Curtis. "Names of US manned spacecraft". Spaceflight, Vol.
20, 2, Fev. 1978. Spaceflight. http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/spaceflight/20/names.html.
^ Arthur C. Clarke - Awards
^ Burns, John F. "Colombo Journal; A Nonfiction Journey to a More
Peaceful World" New York Times, November 28, 1994
^ Iain Thomson (March 19, 2008), Sir Arthur C Clarke dies, Information
World Reviews, Oxford: VNU Business Publications, OCLC 61313783,
retrieved August 18, 2009
^ "Sir Arthur Clarke Named Recipient of 2004 Heinlein Award". Press
release. May 22, 2004. http://www.heinleinsociety.org/pressreleases/clarkeheinleinaward.html.
Retrieved June 20, 2009.
^ "1963 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
^ "1973 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
^ "1974 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
^ "1979 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
^ "1980 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
^ "1983 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End.
 External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C.
The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation
Sir Arthur Clarke Awards
Sir Arthur C Clarke: Obituary and public tributes
Arthur C. Clarke at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Arthur C. Clarke at the Internet Movie Database
A Visit to "The Clarkives"
Arthur C. Clarke's Maelstrom II - a science-based mini drama
Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008) IAF 19 March 2008
Obituary: Arthur C. Clarke BBC 19 March 2008
Sir Arthur C Clarke: 90th Birthday Reflections
Obituary in The Times, 19 March 2008
Obituary in the Wall Street Journal, 20 March 2008
Obituary in guardian.co.uk, 19 March 2008
Obituary in the The New York Times, 19 March 2008
The knight of science fiction, The Hindu, 21 March 2008
Creating thought-tools for the times, The Hindu, 24 March 2008
Arthur C. Clake—Space.com report
Sir Arthur C. Clarke at Find a Grave
Delighted, Kerry O'Quinn, DoorQ.Com, Delighted! Kerry O'Quinn on
Arthur C. Clarke
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Houston Section,
Tribute to Sir Arthur C. Clarke, April Issue 2008 
[hide]v • d • eArthur C. Clarke
Novels Prelude to Space • The Sands of Mars • Islands in the Sky •
Childhood's End • Earthlight • The Deep Range • A Fall of Moondust •
Dolphin Island • Glide Path • Imperial Earth • The Fountains of
Paradise • Songs of Distant Earth • Cradle • The Ghost from the Grand
Banks • The Hammer of God • Richter 10 • The Trigger • The Light of
Other Days • The Last Theorem
Novel series Space Odyssey 2001: A Space Odyssey • 2010: Odyssey Two •
2061: Odyssey Three • 3001: The Final Odyssey • The Lost Worlds of
Rama series Rendezvous with Rama • Rama II • The Garden of Rama • Rama
A Time Odyssey Time's Eye • Sunstorm • Firstborn
Vanamonde series Against the Fall of Night • The City and the Stars •
Beyond the Fall of Night
Collections Expedition to Earth • Reach for Tomorrow • Tales from the
White Hart • The Other Side of the Sky • Tales of Ten Worlds • The
Nine Billion Names of God • Of Time and Stars • The Wind from the Sun
• The Best of Arthur C. Clarke • The Sentinel • Tales From Planet
Earth • More Than One Universe • The Collected Stories of Arthur C.
Non-fiction Interplanetary Flight: an introduction to astronautics •
Profiles of the Future • The Promise of Space • The Lost Worlds of
2001 • The Odyssey File: The Making of 2010 • Ascent to Orbit •
Astounding Days • How the World Was One: Beyond the Global Village •
The Snows of Olympus - A Garden on Mars • An Encyclopedia of Claims,
Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural • Fractals: The
Colors of Infinity • Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! • The Coming of
the Space Age; famous accounts of man's probing of the universe
Adaptations 2001: A Space Odyssey (film) • 2001: A Space Odyssey
(comics) • 2010 (film) • Rendezvous with Rama (video game) • The Songs
of Distant Earth (album) • Rama (video game)
Related Mnematron • Serendipaceratops • Sir Arthur Clarke Award •
Geostationary orbit • Clarke's three laws • Arthur C. Clarke's
Mysterious World • Arthur C. Clarke's World of Strange Powers • Arthur
C. Clarke's Mysterious Universe
List of works
NAME Clarke, Arthur Charles
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Clarke, Arthur C.
SHORT DESCRIPTION British and Sri Lankan Author and Inventor
DATE OF BIRTH 16 December 1917
PLACE OF BIRTH Minehead, Somerset, United Kingdom
DATE OF DEATH 19 March 2008
PLACE OF DEATH Colombo, Sri Lanka
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_C._Clarke"
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Arthur c clark a http://youtu.be/D_oTMRxyhec
Carl Sagan - God, the Universe, & Everything http://youtu.be/6O9cYTZXekA
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